By Francois Crouzet
Considering Europe as an entire instead of as a mosaic of person states, François Crouzet offers the following an available, attractive historical past of the eu financial system in the course of the moment millennium.
Stressing the typical fiscal associations shared through the years via different areas of Europe and the networks of family that experience associated them, Crouzet examines pan-European adjustments and integration instead of in basic terms the actual reports of person nations. A background of the ecu financial system, 1000-2000 is going past addressing the old ramifications of exchange within the ecu economic climate to surround difficulties comparable to the diffusion of expertise, the migration of capital and exertions, diasporas and minorities, and nationwide range. through stressing the ancient origins of the force towards eu integration and its growth the entire solution to the delivery of the euro, Crouzet promises an unique and accomplished evaluate of ecu monetary history.
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Additional resources for A History of the European Economy, 1000-2000
This growth was more remarkable for its long duration than its rapidity, which also changed over time. Growth started in areas close to the Mediterranean and was slow at ﬁrst; then it spread northward and accelerated, with a peak from 1100 to 1150; it slowed down in the second half of the thirteenth century. Historians speak of monde plein, a full world, in reference to western and central Europe around 1300; from the tower or spire of a village church, several others could be seen (this is a trait of the European identity).
Admittedly, some writers have given priority to improvements in technology and higher agricultural productivity, without which demographic growth would soon have stopped. Still, population seems the primus movens, the determinant variable, the engine of progress in agriculture and of what have been called the commercial and urban revolutions. Moreover, according to North, population growth brought about changes in relative prices, which contributed to the development of institutional innovations.
Though many merchants traveled with their goods, by the thirteenth century most trading houses operated from one city and had agents and factors in other places. One of the intra-European trades was the export of salt and wine from the French Atlantic coast to England and Flanders (later to Germany and the Baltic as well); c. 28 A different trade developed in the North Sea and the Baltic following the integration into Christian Europe and development of large territories east of the Elbe. They exported—down rivers and then by sea—grain, herring, wool, furs, hides, and forest products to the “advanced” and urbanized countries, such as Flanders and the rest of the Low Countries, which sent in return woolens and other manufactures.