Agencies in Foreign Aid: Comparing China, Sweden and the by Goran Hyden, Rwekaza Mukandala

By Goran Hyden, Rwekaza Mukandala

Unlike the majority of the literature on overseas relief, which bargains with it as an software of international coverage or specializes in difficulties of implementation, this e-book examines the function of the help corporations themselves, from a recipient's viewpoint, and gives longitudinal in addition to comparative research. The primary relief organisations of China, Sweden and the USA started their operations in Tanzania concurrently within the early Sixties yet from very varied ideological premises. still, all of them fell into operational traps that experience constrained the effectiveness in their contributions to Tanzanian improvement. The editors draw classes approximately how overseas relief, whether it is going to proceed, should be reformed on the organization point.

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This involved political support in international fora and the pursuit of economic policies that promoted capitalism. Americans were also seen as calculating and arrogant, if not downright racist. Aid was not concentrated in anyone area, but was dispersed. Money was put into agriculture, infrastructure, education and training, public administration, and industry. It was as if there was a constant search for the most strategic point where the American contribution could have the most effect. Perhaps most importantly, American aid always came across as not being triggered by Tanzania's needs or even demands, but by America's.

Before doing so, however, it is important to introduce a theoretical perspective which is helpful in understanding and appreciating the dynamics of aid in countries like Tanzania. THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE Studies pertaining to Tanzania reveal a tendency to personalize Tanzania's public policy in general and its foreign and aid policy in particular. Many studies of Tanzania's foreign aid policy centre on President Nyerere to the exclusion of other actors in the polity (Niblock 1972; Shaw and Msabaha 1981; Green 1995; Msabaha 1995).

In sum, the two intervening variables of autonomy and responsiveness are hypothesized to exert influence on each other. We hypothesize further that autonomy and responsiveness have an individual as well as a combined effect on agency relations with the political authorities in the domestic arena, other donors and recipient country institutions. 1. 1 Relations among intervening and dependent variables Drawing on what we have said above about organizations and how they interact with the environment, we have identified five independent variables that we believe are particularly significant for understanding donor agency strategy and behaviour: (1) sources of aid objectives; (2) basis for the provision of aid; (3) structure of agency; (4) staffing of agency; and (5) type and use of feedback.

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