By Pat Walker
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Extra resources for Between Labor and Capital , Edition: 1st edition
Their emergence in force near the turn of the century is parallel and complementary to the transformation of the working class which marks the emergence of monopoly capital. Thus the relationship between the PMC and the working class is objectively antagonistic. The functions and interests ofthe two classes are not merely different; they are mutually contradictory. True, both groups are forced to sell their labor power to the capitalist class; both are necessary to the productive process under capitalism; and they share an antagonistic relation to the capitalist class.
Nicos Poulantzas suggested making a distinction between labor necessary for production of commodities and labor necessary for the reproduction of capitalist social relationships. , in productive enterprises. ' Thus, proposed Gorz, even at the point of production, a distinction must be made between productive and reproductive labor. We shall not succeed in locating technical and scientific labor within the class structure of advanced capitalist society unless we start by analyzing what functions technical and scientific labor perform in the process of capital accumulation and in the process of reproducing social relations.
Meanwhile, the working class not only expands to embrace the vast majority ofthe working popUlation, but also becomes more and more homogenous and unified. As early as the turn of the century it was becoming evident that the class structures of the advanced capitalist countries were not evolving along quite so straight a path. The middle classes were simply not withering away; new, educated and salaried middle class strata had appeared and were growing rapidly. Most Marxists, however, either ignored the new strata or insisted that they, like the old middle class of independent artisans and entrepreneurs would become proletarianized.