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Extra resources for Biology of Personality and Individual Differences
The application to personality was modified over time to acknowledge that neuroticism is correlated more strongly with trait anxiety than with impulsivity, resulting in a portrayal of anxiety at a 30° rotation from neuroticism. Impulsivity, still orthogonal to anxiety, falls at a 60° rotation from neuroticism (30° from extraversion) (Gray & McNaughton, 2000, p. 337). However, Pickering and colleagues and Pickering and Gray (1999) noted that psychoticism is more closely related to impulsivity than is extraversion.
In press; Patrick, Bradley, & Lang, 1993; Patrick & Lang, 1999) research on psychopathy. , low Harm Avoidance, high Thrill and Adventure Seeking). A case can be made that the latter personality scales reflect the effects of fear on behavior. The core features of psychopathy are also are associated with a diminished responsiveness to aversive pictures, as indexed by the fear–potentiated startle response. This startle potentiation appears to be more related to phobias (and thus the fight–flight system) than to anxiety.
By this theoretical proposal, neuroticism was understood to reflect increased sensitivities to both reward (Rew-CSs + nonPun-CSs) and punish- 26 OVERVIEW AND A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE ment (Pun-CSs + nonRew-CSs). Similarly, extraversion was seen as reflecting a greater sensitivity to reward than punishment, whereas introversion was seen as reflecting a greater sensitivity to punishment than reward. Thus the primary dimensions were anxiety (BIS) and impulsivity (approach), with Eysenck’s factors understood as being derived from these primary dimensions.