By Eric S. Lander, Michael S. Waterman
During this first-ever survey of the partnership among arithmetic and biology, prime specialists examine how mathematical learn and strategies have made attainable vital discoveries in biology. Explores how differential geometry, topology, and differential mechanics have allowed researchers to "wind" and "unwind" DNA's double helix to appreciate the phenomenon of supercoiling. Explains how mathematical instruments are revealing the workings of enzymes and proteins. Describes how mathematicians are detecting echoes from the foundation of lifestyles via employing the stochastic and statictical conception to the examine of DNA sequences.
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Additional resources for Calculating the Secrets of Life: Applications of the Mathematical Sciences in Molecular Biology
Components of an ECM System and Important Parameters Generally, ECM systems consist of a generator providing the electric signals and a chamber in which the cells are subject to the electric fields created by the voltage pulse from the generator. A third optional component is a monitoring system, either built into the generator or connected in line between the generator and the chamber, which measures the electrical parameters as the pulse passes through the system. -6. In this section, we discuss the relationship between the electrical parameters, which the ECM system provides, and the parameters that the cells experience.
The above analysis applies only to reversible breakdown of cell membranes by the electric pulses, such that membranes reseal in time, and cells recover from the traumatic event of electroporation. , E >> Eb such that r > rC, electropores do not reseal, and the cell viability is low. As a consequence, cell viability imposes an upper limit on the transfection efficiency. 3. Experimental Evidence Several experiments using fluorescent molecules as tracers have shown that macromolecule leakage or intake during electroporation is indeed proportional to the quantity (E - Eb)T (4,12,13).
Day 1. Introduction Proteins can be introduced into cells in several ways, including permeabilization by Sendai virus, trypsinization, osmotic shock, microinjection, electroporation, or after transfection of cells with expression vectors containing the gene(s) of interest. Unlike most of these other methods, electroporation is a simple, relatively inexpensive, and efficient method for rapidly introducing DNA, small molecules, and proteins into bacterial or mammalian cells (l-10). Electroporation has the advantage over other techniques in that many cells can be treated simultaneously and one or more compounds or macromolecules, such as proteins, can be introduced into cells at the same time (see Note 1).