By Ralph J. Bertolacini, Steven A. Bradley, Mark J. Gattuso
This "must-have" quantity bridges the space among catalysis technology and improvement. it's distinct towards the catalyst scientist who must comprehend the characterization strategies as they practice to catalysts, and towards the instrumentalists who needs to realize the characterization requisites of the catalyst scientist. it's the first quantity to illustrate the integrative process for constructing new catalysts, enhancing procedures, and realizing catalysis technological know-how.
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Extra info for Characterization and Catalyst Development: An Interactive Approach (ACS Symposium Series)
1987, 106, 410. 4. C O T T E R M A N ET AL. ch004 21. ; Frohlich, T . ; Scheler, G. Chem. Phys. Letters 1983, 98, 263. 22. Macedo, A . ; Raatz, F . ; Lavalley, J . C . Int. Symp. on Innovation in Zeolite Matl. Science, Nieuwpoort (Belgium), 1987, p 375. 23. ; Corma, A. Catalytic Cracking: Catalysts, Chemistry and Kinetics; Marcel-Dekker: New York, 1986. 24. Pine, L . A . ; Maher, P . J . A. J. Cat. 1984, 85, 466. 25. Ritter, R . E . G. Paper AM-86-45 presented at NPRA Annual Meeting, Los Angeles, March 1986.
G. Paper AM-86-45 presented at NPRA Annual Meeting, Los Angeles, March 1986. 26. Corma, A . ; Fornes, V . ; Martinez, A . V. ACS Symposium Series No. 368; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1988; p 542. RECEIVED January 26, 1989 Chapter 5 Tin Passivation of Vanadium Contaminants in Model Fluid Cracking Catalysts Spectroscopic Studies 1 2 3 S. L . Suib , M . W. Anderson , and M . L . ch005 2 3 Components of fluidized cracking catalysts (FCC), such as an aluminosilicate gel and a rare-earth (RE) exchanged zeolite Y, have been contaminated with vanadyl naphthenate and the V thus deposited passivated with organotin complexes.
SUIB ET AL. Tin Passivation of Vanadium Contaminants 41 (V) i s the important o x i d a t i o n s t a t e i n v o l v e d i n c a t a l y s t d e a c t i v a t i o n . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a l l the vanadium s p e c i e s and t h e i r r e l a t i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s have y e t been r e p o r t e d . There are s e v e r a l methods to p a s s i v a t e metal contaminants i n FCC (1). P a s s i v a t i n g agents such as Sn ( 8 ) , Bi ( 9 ) , P and B (10), and A l , P. ) have been proved u s e f u l f o r r e d u c i n g the d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s o f metals on FCC.