By Christian C. Enz, Eric A. Vittoz
Glossy, large-scale analog built-in circuits (ICs) are primarily composed of metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistors and their interconnections. As expertise scales all the way down to deep sub-micron dimensions and provide voltage decreases to minimize strength intake, those complicated analog circuits are much more depending on the precise habit of every transistor. High-performance analog circuit layout calls for a really particular version of the transistor, describing correctly its static and dynamic behaviors, its noise and matching barriers and its temperature diversifications. The charge-based EKV (Enz-Krummenacher-Vittoz) MOS transistor version for IC layout has been constructed to supply a transparent figuring out of the machine homes, with out using complex equations. the entire static, dynamic, noise, non-quasi-static versions are thoroughly defined when it comes to the inversion cost on the resource and on the drain profiting from the symmetry of the machine. because of its hierarchical constitution, the version bargains a number of coherent description degrees, from uncomplicated hand calculation equations to accomplish desktop simulation version. it's also compact, with a minimal variety of process-dependant gadget parameters.
Written through its builders, this booklet presents a complete remedy of the EKV charge-based version of the MOS transistor for the layout and simulation of low-power analog and RF ICs. in actual fact cut up into 3 components, the authors systematically examine:
- the easy long-channel intrinsic charge-based version, together with all of the basic features of the EKV so much version corresponding to the elemental large-signal static version, the noise version, and a dialogue of temperature results and matching properties;
- the prolonged charge-based version, proposing very important details for knowing the operation of deep-submicron devices;
- the high-frequency version, commencing an entire MOS transistor version required for designing RF CMOS built-in circuits.
Practising engineers and circuit designers within the semiconductor machine and electronics platforms will locate this ebook a beneficial advisor to the modelling of MOS transistors for built-in circuits. it's also an invaluable reference for complex scholars in electric and machine engineering.
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Extra info for Charge-Based MOS Transistor Modeling: The EKV Model for Low-Power and RF IC Design
4 Local gate capacitance Cg as a function of gate voltage VG For negative gate voltages, holes are attracted to the surface. Csi becomes much larger than Cox and thus Cg tends to Cox . The same is true for large positive gate voltages that attract a large number of electrons corresponding to channel inversion. In between, holes are repelled from the surface, leaving the depletion charge Q b , while the electron charge remains negligible. The silicon capacitance is thus reduced to the depletion capacitance Cd given by Csi = Cd = ǫsi √ = 2L D Ψs /UT ǫsi q Nb .
Channel voltage In weak inversion, qi ≪ 1; thus the linear term becomes negligible. The mobile inverted charge can be approximated by qi = exp (vp − v) (weak inversion). 49) In strong inversion, qi ≫ 1; thus the logarithmic term becomes negligible. The mobile inverted charge can be approximated by qi = vp − v 2 (strong inversion). 3. In moderate inversion, both terms contribute to the variation of mobile charge and neither approximation is valid. 10, ΨP − VP is almost exactly constant. 7, dVG dVG = = n.
To obtain a value as constant as possible, the device must be biased in accumulation or in strong inversion. A voltage-dependent capacitor (varicap) is obtained by exploiting the slow decay of CG in weak inversion, or its rapid increase at the verge of strong inversion . 20 THE BASIC CHARGE MODEL 2fF + V = 20 UT 10 8 30 10 n p /E z NbLD /U T ) 2U T . 4 ng o Str inv 40 ( y/ xp ~e 50 in T) v. 2 is obtained by integrating the electron concentration n p below the surface of silicon: Q i = −q ∞ 0 Ψs n p dz = −q 0 np dΨ.