Confucian China and its Modern Fate: Volume One: The Problem by Joseph R. Levenson

By Joseph R. Levenson

First released in 1958

These volumes study sleek chinese language background and its internal method, from the pre-western plateau of Confucianism to the communist triumph, within the context of many issues: technology, artwork, philosophy, faith and monetary, political, and social switch. Volume One comprises:
· The critique of Idealism
· technological know-how and Ch'ing empiricism
· The Ming sort, in society and art
· Confucianism and the tip of the Taoist connection
· Eclecticism within the zone of local chinese language choices
· T'i and Yung
· The Chin-Wen tuition and the classical sanction
· the trendy Ku-Wen competition to Chin-Wen reformism
· The function of nationalism
· Communism
· Western powers and chinese language revolutions
· Language switch and the matter of continuity

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Sample text

The Song army, again critically supported by its river fleet, inflicted repeated, bloody defeats on the Southern Han army without causing it to collapse. 29 The fall of the Southern Han simplified Taizu’s strategic options, leaving him a choice between the Southern Tang, and the Northern Han and Liao. From 971 to 974, however, he was absorbed in governing his now much-expanded empire and consolidating his control over the new territory and his own court. The Southern Tang court resolutely refused to accept the “inevitable” Song reconstruction of the Tang empire, despite increasing diplomatic pressure to do so.

Few peace treaties in world history have ever been so successful, creating 120 years of peace, yet so disliked by at least one of the signatories, the Song. Eleventhcentury China was one of the high points of Chinese and world culture in almost every human endeavor, whether artistic, intellectual, or technological, and this grand century of achievement was founded on the long peace that the Chanyuan Covenant created. On a more prosaic level, the covenant marked the end of Song empire building, at least in the expansionistic external sense, and the beginning of the military’s retreat from political prominence.

Only in hindsight is it 26 U N I T Y T H RO U G H WA R , 9 0 0 – 1 0 0 5 apparent that the Türks were a spent force after Gaoping. That left two major targets for Chai, who was both bold and ambitious: Shu, in Sichuan, or the Southern Tang, across the Huai River. 19 His military objectives can only have been limited, as the Southern Tang was too large, and its military too strong, to be carried in a single campaign, but he may have hoped that the political effects of his invasion would have extended well beyond his army’s immediate reach.

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