Current Sources and Voltage References: A Design Reference by Linden T. Harrison

By Linden T. Harrison

Current assets and Voltage References offers fastened, well-regulated degrees of present or voltage inside of a circuit. those are of an important “building blocks “ of analog circuits, and are usually utilized in developing such a lot analog IC designs.

Part 1 indicates the reader how present resources are created, how they are often optimized, and the way they are often used by the OEM circuit fashion designer. The booklet serves as a “must-have” reference for the profitable improvement of precision circuit purposes. It exhibits sensible examples utilizing both BJTs, FETs, precision op amps, or perhaps matched CMOS arrays getting used to create hugely actual present resource designs, starting from nanoAmps to Amps. In every one bankruptcy an important features of the actual semiconductor sort being studied are rigorously reviewed. This not just serves as a useful refresher for skilled engineers, but additionally as a superb starting place for all EE pupil coursework, and contains equipment types and proper equations.

Part 2 makes a speciality of semiconductor voltage references, from their layout to their a variety of useful improvements. It levels from the straightforward Zener diode to today’s so much complex topologies, together with Analog units’ XFET® and Intersil’s FGA™ (invented whereas this ebook was once being written). Over three hundred functions and circuit diagrams are proven all through this easy-to-read, sensible reference e-book.

* Discusses easy methods to layout low-noise, precision present resources utilizing matched transistor pairs.

* Explains the layout of excessive strength present assets with energy MOSFETs

* provides confirmed thoughts to lessen go with the flow and enhance accuracy in voltage references.

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All of these types have been mostly superseded by semiconductor voltage references. In modern times, the first milestone reached for a semiconductor-based reference was the introduction of the zener diode, which serves as a voltage reference. This was created in the late 1950s by its inventor Dr. Clarence Zener, a researcher at Westinghouse Electric Company. Operation of the zener diode relies on some unique 1 Introduction characteristics of a reverse-biased P-N junction and is usually operated so that it is in parallel (shunt) with the load.

This was the year that National Semiconductor was originally founded, that photolithography was invented at Bell Labs, that Dr. Jean Hoerni started developing his planar transistor prototypes at Fairchild Semiconductor, and that a small semiconductor manufacturer called Crystalonics Inc. was founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts, by two former Raytheon engineers, and soon began making transistors. A year or two later they began to make JFETs, which at the time had only been made at Fairchild Semiconductor’s development lab in California (again by Dr.

Recovery time could take days or even weeks. Both types of cells produced stable voltages, though, accurate to a few parts per million (ppm) or better. Modern Weston cells require being held in a temperature-controlled bath. Mercury cells, originally developed during World War II, were also used as voltage references, mostly because they were small, cheap, and immune to the physical problems of the fragile glass standard cells. 35 volts at several milliamps (mA) and for more than 1,000 hours, but had much lower accuracy and a higher temperature coefficient.

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