ECG made easy, Edition: 4th ed by Atul Luthra.

By Atul Luthra.

Desktop generated contents observe: 1.Nomenclature of ECG Deflections --
The Electrocardiogram --
The Electrophysiology --
The Deflections --
The periods --
The Segments --
2.Electrocardiographic Leads --
The Electrocardiographic Leads --
The Limb Leads --
The Chest Leads --
The Lead Orientation --
The Einthoven Triangle --
3.ECG Grid and basic Values --
The ECG Grid --
The common ECG Values --
4.Determination of electric Axis --
The electric Axis --
The Hexaxial method --
The QRS Axis --
Determination of QRS Axis --
Abnormalities of QRS Axis --
5.Determination of the guts fee --
The center fee --
The center Rhythm --
6.Abnormalities of the P Wave --
Normal P Wave --
Absent P Wave --
Inverted P Wave --
Changing P Wave Morphology --
Tall P Wave --
Broad P Wave --
7.Abnormalities of QRS advanced --
Normal QRS advanced --
Low-Voltage QRS complicated --
Alternating QRS Voltage --
Abnormal QRS Axis --
Fascicular Block or Hemiblock --
Non-Progression of R Wave --
Abnormal Q Waves

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Additional info for ECG made easy, Edition: 4th ed

Sample text

A sinus rhythm at this rate is called normal sinus rhythm. Besides the SA node, there are other potential pacemakers in the heart such as in the atria, atrioventricular junction and the ventricles. They are known as ectopic or subsidiary pacemakers. The subsidiary pacemakers can discharge at a slower rate than the SA node. For instance, an atrial or junctional pacemaker can fire 40 to 60 impulses per minute while a ventricular pacemaker can fire 20 to 40 impulses per minute. It is for this reason that the SA node governs the cardiac rhythm by silencing these subsidiary pacemakers.

Bradycardia C. Tachycardia marking of a large square. This facilitates the measurement of the interval between it and the next wave, in multiples of 5 mm (one large square = 5 small squares). A single P-P or R-R interval measurement generally suffices for heart rate determination if the heart beating is regular (equally spaced complexes). If however, the heart beating is irregular (unequally spaced complexes), a mean of 5 or 10 P-P or R-R intervals is taken into account. Examples  The R-R interval is 20 mm.

5). It is often difficult to notice the U wave but when seen, it is best appreciated in the precordial leads V2 to V4. The U wave is more easy to recognize when the Q-T interval is short or the heart rate is slow, in which conditions it is clearly separated from the preceding T wave and the P wave of the following beat, respectively. The normal U wave is upright and it is normally much smaller than the T wave which it follows. Normal P-R Interval The P-R interval is measured on the horizontal axis from the onset of the P wave to the beginning of the QRS complex, irrespective of whether it begins with a Q wave or a R wave (Fig.

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