Electronic and Radio Engineering, Edition: 4th by F.E. Terman

By F.E. Terman

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5% and for the double period TE modes (m = 2), it is 50%. However, a combination of modes in the aperture can produce higher maximum efficiencies. How such an efficiency could be achieved is a subject for further design. 3. 7 Effective Aperture A receiving antenna is characterized by the equivalent area over which it collects energy from an incident wave. The receiving cross section of the antenna is defined as follows: Ar θ, ϕ = received power power density of incident wave 3 51 It is possible to show that when the receiving antenna is oriented to receive maximum signal and the antenna is matched to the terminating load, then Ar θ, ϕ = λ2 G θ, ϕ 4π 3 52 Fields Radiated by an Aperture 47 The maximum aperture is known as the effective aperture, Ae, and it is given by Ae = λ2 Gmax , 4π 3 53 where Gmax is the maximum value of gain (Eq.

One approach is to estimate the phase centre from the two-dimensional discrete patterns using the method of least squares (Fröberg, 1974). It can be shown that in the p-th azimuth plane, the phase centre for a symmetric radiator in the plane p (= 1, …, NP) is approximately given by kdp = where k = 2π λ, aq = M i=1 cosq θi b1 − a1 b0 , a2 − a21 M and bq = 3 46 M i=1 Φ θi , ϕp cosq θi M, q = 0, 1, 2, θi is angle i (= 1, …, M) in the n-th pattern cut through the plane ϕp which is symmetric about boresight, M is the number of angular directions in the pattern and Φ(θi, ϕp) is the continuous (unwrapped) phase function expressed in radians.

Tokyo, Japan. , Salazar-Palma, M. L. , Hoboken, NJ. A. T. , New York. 3 Fields Radiated by an Aperture The previous chapter has provided the background for examining radiation from an aperture. Special cases of interest to the topic will be examined, and parameters related to radiation that are used to describe the characteristics of radiation will be defined. 1 Radiation Equations Suppose the aim is to determine the fields at a point P arising from fields excited on an aperture A. 1. In the previous section, it was shown that fields Ea, Ha, on a surface, may be replaced by equivalent sources Js = n × Ha 3 1a M s = − n × Ea 3 1b where n is the normal to the surface.

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