Encyclopedia of Political Thought (Facts on File Library of by Garrett Ward Sheldon

By Garrett Ward Sheldon

A source for college students or common readers who need to know extra concerning the significant rules, philosophies and ideas, either prior and current, that experience motivated and formed civilization.

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The Winding Stair: Francis Bacon, His Rise and Fall, 1st ed. : Doubleday, 1977, 1976. Peppiatt, Michael. Francis Bacon: Anatomy of an Enigma, 1st American ed. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1997. 27 28 Bakunin, Mikhail Aleksandrovich Bakunin, Mikhail Aleksandrovich (1814–1876) Russian revolutionary and anarchist Bakunin was the eldest son of a small landowner whose estate was near Moscow. He was educated at a military school in St. Petersburg and later served as an officer in the emperor’s army stationed on the Polish frontier.

This became the basis of much Western aristocratic views of the “gentleman” who does not deal with trade and money but with the higher intellectual, moral, and political matters, using higher human faculties. From this, Aristotle claims certain preconditions for real citizenship: education, wealth, and experience; this is why he excludes those who are irrational (slaves, workers) or have limited reasoning ability (women and children). Aristotle categorizes regimes by the number of rulers and their character.

S. national government resides in offices (the presidency, Congress, courts) with specific powers and prestige, not in individuals (who come and go). So, in the modern world, authority tends to rest in the official position a person occupies, and when he or she leaves that office, the authority ends except for any personal or moral authority the person retains. ) after leaving office on the basis of his personal moral authority. ” Unjust authority then becomes that which we did not make ourselves or consent to, only voluntary, informed submission to authority being legitimate and democratic.

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