By Ajay R. Mishra
“By 2008, a few 2 billion humans can be utilizing cellphones and units, in lots of circumstances to entry complicated information providers. in contrast backdrop, the necessity for effective and powerful community layout may be serious to the good fortune of more and more advanced cellular networks.”
Simon Beresford-Wylie (SVP, Nokia Networks)
With the complexity of the mobile networks expanding daily, a deeper knowing of the layout and function of end-to-end mobile networks is needed. furthermore, the entire different types of networks from 2G-2.5G-3G appear to co-exist. Fundamentals of Cellular community making plans and Optimisation covers end-to-end community making plans and optimisation features from moment iteration GSM to 3rd new release WCDMA networks together with GPRS and facet networks. all of the sub-systems of the community i.e. radio community, transmission community and middle community were lined with specialize in either functional and theoretical concerns. by way of bringing most of these suggestions lower than one hide, this publication turns into crucial interpreting for the community layout engineers operating both with mobile carrier owners or operators, experts/scientists engaged on end-to-end concerns and undergraduate/post-graduate students.
- Distinctly divided into 4 elements: 2G (GSM), 2.5G (GPRS & EDGE), 3G (WCDMA) and creation to 4G (OFDM, ALL-IP, WLAN evaluation) respectively
- Each half specializes in the radio, transmission and middle networks.
- Concentrates on mobile community making plans technique and explains the underlying ideas in the back of the making plans and optimizing of the mobile networks.
The textual content will function a guide for a person engaged within the research, layout, deployment and company of mobile networks.
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Extra resources for Fundamentals of Cellular Network Planning and Optimisation: 2G/2.5G/3G... Evolution to 4G
This is basically used for micro-cells in urban environments. e. the height of building + height of the BTS antenna) for a distance of up to 5 km. This model talks about two conditions: line-of-sight (LOS) and no-line-of-sight (NLOS). 11. The values of the roof top-to-street diffraction loss are dependent upon the street orientation, street width and the frequency of operation. The multi-screen diffraction losses are dependent upon the distance and frequency. Note: Walfish-Ikegami model can be used also for macro-cells.
This kind of fading is independent of the downlink or uplink if the bandwidths used are different from each other in both directions. Frequency-selective fading takes place owing to variation in atmospheric conditions. Atmospheric conditions may cause the signal of a particular frequency to fade. When the mobile station moves from one location to another, the phase relationship between the various components arriving at the mobile antenna changes, thus changing the resultant signal level. Doppler shift in frequency takes place owing to the movement of the mobile with respect to the receiving frequencies.
Sometimes, the theoretical loss may exceed the desired value, so preamplifiers (also known as masthead amplifiers) may be used to counter the cable loss. 1 dB. MS and BTS antenna gain: The antennas used for MS and BTS have significantly different gain levels. For obvious reasons, the MS antenna has a lower gain, of the order of 0 dBi, while the BTS antenna gain can vary from 8 dBi to 21 dBi depending upon the type of antenna (omnidirectional versus directional) being used. This gain can be increased by using various techniques, such as antenna diversity (both uplink and downlink).