Higher Education Policies in Central and Eastern Europe: by Michael Dobbins (auth.)

By Michael Dobbins (auth.)

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The fact that the European Commission is not a neutral by-stander is also demonstrated by various other aspects. First, the Commission’s funding facilitated the initial Bologna meeting and many thematic preferences of the Commission (mobility, quality assurance, lifelong learning) have been incorporated into the process (Balzer and Martens 2004: 14–15). The Commission communication The Role of the Universities in the Europe of Knowledge (2003) also offers clear insights on how top European decision-makers look at HE today.

The models, which are broken down into indicators of governance, integrate key insights and categorizations from previous HE studies, most notably Clark (1983), Niklasson (1995), McDaniel (1997), Neave (1994; 1998), and Jongbloed (2003) for financial governance. However, it must be first emphasized that all systems mix elements of hierarchical state control, market competition, and academic self-rule (see Niklasson 1995). Therefore none of the ideal-types outlined above is likely to be observed in its purest form.

Albeit contingent on contemporary national peculiarities, these historical models can be streamlined into competing modern visions of the university towards which national systems may converge. Each corner of the triangle depicts an extreme organizational form and minimum degree of the two other forms. For example, the USSR and its satellites represented the pinnacle of state control and bureaucratization, with an extremely weak degree of market and academic forces in HE governance. 2 Clark’s Higher Education Coordination Triangle Source: Adapted and modified from Clark (1983); see also Gürüz (2003: 82) for an alternative version Convergence in Higher Education Governance?

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