Imperatores Victi: Military Defeat and Aristocractic by Nathan S. Rosenstein

By Nathan S. Rosenstein

Given the serious pageant between aristocrats looking public place of work within the center and past due Roman Republic, one might anticipate that their chronic struggles for honor, glory, and gear may have heavily undermined the kingdom or broken the cohesiveness of the ruling classification. Rome in reality relied on aristocratic pageant, considering that no expert forms directed public affairs and no wage used to be hooked up to any public workplace. yet as Rosenstein adeptly exhibits, pageant seems to be to were unusually constrained, in ways in which curtailed the prospective harmful results of all-out contests among individuals.

Imperatores Victi examines one really outstanding case of such tests on pageant. army good fortune consistently represented an ample resource of status and political energy at Rome. Generals who led armies to victory loved a better-than-average likelihood of securing greater workplace upon their go back from the sphere. but this learn demonstrates that defeated generals weren't barred from public workplace and in reality went directly to win the Republic's so much hugely coveted and hotly contested places of work in numbers nearly exact with these in their undefeated peers.

Rosenstein explores how this unforeseen restrict to festival capabilities, reviewing ideals concerning the spiritual origins of defeat, assumptions approximately universal infantrymen' tasks in conflict, and definitions of honorable habit of an aristocrat in the course of a problem. those views have been instrumental in transferring the onus of failure clear of a general's individual and in supplying optimistic innovations a basic may possibly use to win glory and appreciate even in defeat and to silence strength critics between a failed general's friends. Such limits to festival had an influence at the better difficulties of balance and coherence within the Republic and its political elite; those better difficulties are mentioned within the concluding chapter.

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This study also takes the contextual approach as it makes a distinction between content and context. The identified themes and motifs − the content − 22 Introduction are contextualized in this type of approach. Several different contexts are recognized, namely frequency, sequence, clustering, typology, time, space, and visual/textual. The royal title “king of the universe” may again be used to exemplify. Its frequency states how often it is attested, its sequence refers to how prominent its place is in the ordering of titles, and its clustering shows which other titles it is attested with.

Furthermore, the reported, persuasive speech of the Assyrian chief eunuch in the local language at the gate of the besieged city of Jerusalem (see II Kings 18– 19, Isaiah 36–37) was directed at a larger group of people, socially and ethnically (Siddall 2013: 149), although it is of course difficult to use this filtered imagery as firm evidence. It also seems that a dissemination of Assyrian royal inscriptions are reflected in the Hebrew Bible, with the formers’ themes and messages mirrored negatively, turned against the Assyrian kings and state (Machinist 1983b: 729–31; Weissert 2011).

G. 36 Introduction involving Gurgum. g. SE16:143′–51′). Somewhat further to the north-west, the diffuse but significant land Tabal was situated. Turning considerably southwards, the important cities of Damascus and Hamath were situated firmly inland. g. at Qarqar and the Orontes. Also Adad-narari III had much to do with the polity of Damascus, arguably conquering it. g. AE1:iii85–88, SE14:103–104). These include the polities of Arwad, Tyr, Sidon, Simurra, and Byblos. This area, especially the city of Byblos, was more influenced by the Egyptian than the Mesopotamian civilization (Kuhrt 1997).

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