By Heinke Röbken
Heinke Röbken analyses how American, German and Swedish universities - and especially company faculties - care for a number of the expectancies they're faced with. at the foundation of neo-institutional thought she argues type of "institutional schizophrenia" may help associations to conform with exterior calls for with no compromising the pursuit of educational acceptance that's crucial for his or her internal balance.
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Additional info for Inside the “Knowledge Factory”: Organizational Change in Business Schools in Germany, Sweden and the USA (Wirtschaftswissenschaften)
This implies that the institutions with which organizations interact, such as governments, banks, professional bodies, etc. have no interest in securing organizational effectiveness. Empirical evidence for this anti-functionalist view is still lacking. So far, it could not be established that structural elements have no functional value nor that the structures are adopted only as a fa~ade (Donaldson 1995: 126-27). Since it is indeed questionable how and why the adoption of techniques that support and secure organizational survival can lead to inefficiency, this argumentation has been at least partly abandoned in newer versions of neo-institutionalism (Walgenbach 1999: 332).
Nevertheless, with her framework of organizational responses to institutional pressures Oliver (1991) draws attention to the main criticism of institutional theory, namely that organizations are seen to passive. Organizations and Institutional Environments: Neo-Institutionalism 21 to the conscious adherence to constituency expectations and values. As Scott (1995: 128) argues, acquiescing is emphasized by most institutional theorists. I' Table 2: Strategic Responses to Institutional Pressures Stratellies Tactics Habit Acquiesce Imitate Comply Balance Compromise Pacify Bargain Conceal Avoid Buffer Escape Dismiss Challenge DefY Attack Co-opt Manipulate Influence Control Source: Ohver(l991: 152) Examples Following visible, taken-for-granted nonns Mimicking institutional models Obeying rules and accepting nonns Balancing the expectations of multiple constituents Placating and accommodating institutional elements Negotiating with institutional stakeholders Disguising nonconfonnity Loosening institutional attachments Challging goals, activities, or domains Ignoring explicit nonns and values Contesting rules and requirements Assaulting the source of institutional pressures Importing influential constituents Shaping values and criteria Dominating institutional constituents and processes Compromise is widespread in conflicted environments and in settings where organizations face inconsistent demands from external stakeholders that cannot be easily reconciled with the internal demands for efficiency.
21 Box 2: Song at the Opening Ceremony of Cologne's Business School Der Kaufmann will Gelehrter sein? Wir kommen nicht, mit Theorie BebUt' uns doch der Himmel! Die Augen zu bebrillen, Erfahrung leitet ihn allein Sind nicht einmal ausschliesslich hie, DUTCh sein Berufsgetiimmel. Urn unseren Durst zu stillen. Lasst Seewind ihm die Nas' umwehn, Wir wollen an der Wissenschaft Zur That ist er geboren; Des Geistes Muskeln weiten Die Theorie, die lass' er stehn, Und dann mit doppelt schneid'ger Kraft Die ist fur Professoren!