Manual of Ancient Geography History by Wilhelm Putz, Thomas Kerchever Arnold

By Wilhelm Putz, Thomas Kerchever Arnold

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Fifth leg was added to make the creature look like it was in motion 46 Fly whisk is used to bat flies off the food Attendant holds date-palm fan Queen Ashursharrat holds a cup of wine King Ashurbanipal reclines on a couch Throne room of the Northwest Palace, Nimrud A VICTORY BANQUET A carving from the North Palace at Nineveh shows King Ashurbanipal and Queen Ashursharrat feasting after the Battle of Til-Tuba in 653 bce. Birds fly among the palms and vines. Servants fan the king and queen and cater for their every need.

A great courtyard would lead to a long throne room, which was guarded by colossal statues of mythical beasts. Its walls were alive with carvings of battle and hunting scenes, or with images of defeated peoples paying tribute to the great king. All were painted in brilliant colours, and designed to impress foreign rulers or ambassadors who came to pay homage. An inner courtyard would lead to the private apartments of the royal family, to the servants’ quarters, and to the kitchens. Wings symbolize protective powers Harpist Severed head of the Elamite king Human head with divine headdress and elaborate beard GUARDIAN OF THE PALACE Lamassu statues were humanheaded winged bulls or lions.

For centuries it remained a centre of religion and trade. The two were closely linked, as the temples were also wealthy businesses. In 1595 bce Babylon was attacked by Hittites, and the city later fell to Kassites and Assyrians. It did not become the capital of a great empire again until 626 bce (see page 52). Eight-pointed star, symbol of the fertility goddess, Ishtar Turtle, symbol of Ea, god of water and wisdom Headdresses represent the great gods, Anu and Enlil Dragon, symbol of Marduk Sun god Shamash gives the law to Hammurabi LAWS WRITTEN IN STONE This black pillar listed all the laws of Babylon, and the punishments for breaking them.

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