Molecular biology, Edition: 5th ed by Robert Franklin Weaver

By Robert Franklin Weaver

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The curving sides of the ladder represent the sugar–phosphate backbones of the two DNA strands; the rungs are the base pairs. 2 Å, meaning that there are about 10 base pairs (bp) per turn of the helix. ) The arrows indicate that the two strands are antiparallel. If one has 59→39 polarity from top to bottom, the other must have 39→59 polarity from top to bottom. 4 bp per turn. Watson and Crick published the outline of their model in the journal Nature, back-to-back with papers by Wilkins and Franklin and their coworkers showing the x-ray data.

But after the middle of the century, this classification system was abandoned in favor of a five-kingdom system that included bacteria, fungi, and protists, in addition to plants and animals. 14) performed sequencing studies on the ribosomal RNA genes of many different organisms and reached a startling conclusion: A class of organisms that had been classified as bacteria have rRNA genes that are more similar to those of eukaryotes than they are to those of classical bacteria like E. coli. Thus, Woese named these organisms archaebacteria, to distinguish them from true bacteria, or eubacteria.

Both the A and B form DNA structures are righthanded: The helix turns clockwise away from you whether you look at it from the top or the bottom. Alexander Rich and his colleagues discovered in 1979 that DNA does not always have to be right-handed. , poly[dG-dC] ? poly[dG-dC]): —GCGCGCGC— —CGCGCGCG— can exist in an extended left-handed helical form. Because of the zigzag look of this DNA’s backbone when viewed from the side, it is often called Z-DNA. 16c presents a picture of Z-DNA. 2. Although Rich discovered Z-DNA in studies of model compounds like poly[dG-dC] ?

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