Morphological and Cellular Aspects of Tail and Limb by Lorenzo Alibardi

By Lorenzo Alibardi

The current overview covers a truly overlooked box in regeneration reviews, specifically, tissue and organ regeneration in reptiles, in particular represented by way of the lizard version of regeneration. The time period “regeneration” is meant right here as “the skill of an grownup organism to recuperate broken or thoroughly misplaced physique components or organs.” the method of restoration is extra termed “restitutive regeneration” while the misplaced half is reformed and able to acting the entire or partial physiological job played by way of the unique, misplaced physique half. Lizards symbolize the one amniotes that even as express profitable organ regeneration, within the tail, and organ failure, within the limb (Marcucci 1930a, b; Simpson 1961, 1970, 1983). This deals a distinct chance to review whilst mechanisms that during varied areas of a similar animal keep an eye on the good fortune or failure of regeneration. The lizard version is generally ignored within the literature even though the lizard is an amniote with a simple histological constitution just like that of mammals, and it's accordingly a greater version than the salamander (an a- mniote) version to enquire regeneration matters.

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Extra info for Morphological and Cellular Aspects of Tail and Limb Regeneration in Lizards: A Model System With Implications for Tissue Regeneration in Mammals (Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology)

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1 Wound Healing and Blastema Formation During the wound healing stage following lizard tail amputation, a weak or limited inflammatory response is elicited, a condition that in conjunction with other factors, such as tissue dedifferentiation and stem cell availability, results in a successful regeneration. Compared with autotomy, the amputation of the tail using a cutting blade results in some bleeding and the stump is covered by a blood clot in a few hours (Fig. 4a). The transected muscles show the degeneration of the terminal part of their fibers in the first week after amputation (Fig.

11b–e). The cartilage was either a continuation of the periosteum of the vertebral body or of cartilaginous cells of the intervertebral cartilage (intercentra). Fibrous connective tissue was also seen, and this connective tissue was mixed or surrounding the cartilaginous tissue. In the case of the continuity of the vertebrae with the regenerating tail, the cartilage tended to form a tube, so vertebrae were replaced with an irregular cartilaginous tube, like in the regenerating tail (data not shown).

No injured muscles contribute to the blastema cell population, but only from cells of the intermuscular septum. The periosteum of vertebrae and the adipose tissue also appear to give rise to blastema cells, so these tissues are roughly a direct continuation of the blastema where the new cartilage and fat will be reformed. Finally, the bone marrow at the injured sites of vertebrae or near the intravertebral split can give rise to low cycling cells (likely stem cells) that colonize the stump and may participate in the formation of the regenerative blastema.

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