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Extra info for Nanoparticles, Second Edition
For other concepts, the logical states are essentially represented by single electrons, for example, in QD cellular automata . Whilst all of these proposals face strong conceptual and technical challenges, to date it seems unlikely that a single-electron approach can offer a competitive alternative to traditional CMOS-based logic. Among problems encountered have been the required smallness of the QDs for reliable room temperature operation, the sensitivity to background charges, the need for strategies for reproducible placement and interconnection of QDs to build very-large-scale integration (VLSI) structures, and the lack of gain of single-electron transistors .
E(N,QG) deﬁnes a set of parabolas with minima at Ne ¼ QG. 14 A schematic circuit diagram for a single-electron transistor. The electron island, indicated by the black dot, is connected to source and drain contacts via tunneling barriers having capacitances CS and CD. Additionally, the electrostatic energy of the island can be tuned with a capacitively coupled gate (capacitance CG). In this circuit, the source contact has been set to ground, and the gate voltage is applied with respect to the ground potential.
However, an estimate of such a term is possible only if the wavefunctions for the electron and the hole are known. The strength of the screening coefﬁcient depends on the dielectric constant e of the semiconductor. An estimate of the coulomb term yields: ECoul ¼ À1:8 e2 =2pee0 d ð2:15Þ This term may be quite signiﬁcant, because the average distance between an electron and a hole in a QD dot can be small [55–59]. 15) into Eq. 16), the following is obtained: Eg ðdÞ ¼ Eg ðbulkÞ þ h2 =2mÃ d2 À1:8 e2 =2 pee0 d ð2:17Þ where the size-dependence in each term has been emphasized.