Nitric Oxide: Biology and Pathobiology by Louis J. Ignarro

By Louis J. Ignarro

Nitric oxide (NO) is a gasoline obviously present in the physique that conveys info among cells. within the final decade researchers have stumbled on that NO is a signaling molecule of key value for the cardiovascular procedure, regulating blood strain and blood move to diverse organs. furthermore, discoveries surrounding nitric oxide’s position as a valuable neurotransmitter moderating erectile functionality, a pathophysiological negotiator and messenger in irritation, and a weapon opposed to infections have elevated examine awareness around the fields of biochemistry, chemistry, molecular biology, gene remedy, cellphone biology, immunology, pharmacology, neuroscience, and body structure.

  • Edited by way of Nobel Laureate Louis J. Ignarro
  • Up-to-date healing implications of nitric oxide research
  • Authored by way of international specialists on nitric oxide
  • Detailed examine of the biochemistry and synthesis of nitric oxide

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CHAPTER 1 Introduction and Overview Stamler, J. S. (1995). S-nitrosothiols and the bioregulatory actions of nitrogen oxides through reactions with thiol groups. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 196, 19–36. Stamler, J. , Simon, D. , Keaney, J. , Singel, D. , Valeri, C. , and Loscalzo, J. (1992). Nitric oxide circulates in mammalian plasma primarily as an S-nitroso adduct of serum albumin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. A. 89, 7674–7677. Stamler, J. , Simon, D. , Osborne, J. , Mullins, M. , Singel, D. , and Loscalzo, J.

4)]. ⅐NO + O2Ϫ⅐ r ϪONOO (4) Peroxynitrite has only a fraction of the biological activity of NO and, therefore, this reaction represents an inactivation mechanism for NO. Peroxynitrite, however, is extremely electrophilic and can, therefore, behave as a potent oxidant. Under pathophysiological conditions involving mitochondrial dysfunction, where high concentrations of superoxide may be formed, the reaction of NO with superoxide to form peroxynitrite may lead to the oxidation of a variety of biological molecules and modification of cellular function.

As a second molecule of ⅐ NO2 or O2. Reaction with ⅐NO2 would result in a dinitro adduct and reaction with O2 would generate a nitroalkylperoxy radical which can undergo further radical chemistry. Electron transfer reactions are probably the most dominant reaction pathway for direct ⅐NO2-mediated oxidations in biological systems (not including reactions of ⅐NO2-derived species which will be discussed later). Nitrogen dioxide will react reasonably well with, for example, the anions of ascorbate, phenol, or thiols with rate constants of approximately 107 –108 MϪ1 sϪ1 to form NO2Ϫ and the corresponding radical species.

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