By Professor Dr. Johann-Martin Spaeth, Professor Dr. Harald Overhof (auth.)
This ebook introduces the foundations and methods of recent electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy which are crucial for purposes used to figure out microscopic illness buildings. many various magnetic resonance tools are required for investigating the microscopic and digital houses of solids and uncovering correlations among these homes. as well as EPR such tools comprise electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR), electronically and optically detected EPR (the latter is called ODENDOR), and electronically and optically detected ENDOR. This publication comprehensively discusses experimental, technological, and theoretical elements of those concepts from a pragmatic viewpoint with many illustrative examples taken from semiconductors and insulators. The non-specialist is educated concerning the strength of different tools. A researcher reveals sensible assist in the applying of business equipment in addition to priceless tips from ab initio conception for the duty of deriving constitution versions from experimental data.
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Extra resources for Point Defects in Semiconductors and Insulators: Determination of Atomic and Electronic Structure from Paramagnetic Hyperfine Interactions
Most EPR lines of solid state defects are rather broad. Often LlWI/2 is of the order of 5-50 mT. This limits the sensitivity more than anything else, since most spectrometers reach the theoretical sensitivity quite well. The "spectrometer sensitivity" is mostly given in terms of Nmin/ LlWl~2. A typical sensitivity for electron spin resonance is Nmin = 5 x 1011 -1 X 101 spins/mT for T = 300 K, S = 1/2, 110 = 10 GHz, Llll = 1 Hz. In NMR the sensitivity is much smaller. For protons one obtains about 10 18 _10 19 spins/mT for Wo = 40 MHz, T = 300 K, I = 1/2, and Llll = 1Hz.
The polarization B1 of the rf field must always be perpendicular to B o. lt can, of course, also be parallel to the y-direction, since the same result is obtained as for the x-direction. If both levels, ms = +1/2 and ms = _1/2, had the same occupation N+ = N_ (Fig. 46) for absorption and induced emission are equal. The probability for spontaneous emission is very small and can be neglected here. Therefore, an energy transfer is only possible if the occupation numbers satisfy N+ < N_. This is indicated in Fig.
A) Bo II [100j. (b) Bo II [110j. There is no fine-structure splitting observable. The partly resolved structure for Bo II < 100> is due to superhyperfine interactions with four equivalent nearest 31p neighbors. LB)' In this case, one cannot easily determine the spin state of a defect, and thus its charge state, from the EPR spectra. 13]. NiH occupies a Ga site and has the configuration 3d7 . There is no resolved fine-structure splitting, and the spectrum looks as if arising from an S = 1/2 defect.