By Gábor Horváth
This ebook covers advances made because the 2004 Springer quantity “Polarized mild in Animal imaginative and prescient” edited by means of Horvath and Varju, but in addition offers studies and synopses of a few parts. half I examines polarization sensitivity throughout many animal taxa together with vertebrates and invertebrates and info either terrestrial and aquatic lifestyles. half II is dedicated to the outline of polarized gentle in nature and explores how the physics of sunshine needs to be taken under consideration whilst knowing how polarized gentle is detected by means of the visible method. This comprises underwater polarization because of scattering; polarization styles mirrored from freshwater our bodies; polarization features of woodland canopies; basic and anomalous polarization styles of the skies; skylight polarization transmitted via Snell’s window and either linearly and circularly polarized indications produced via terrestrial and aquatic animals. This half additionally examines polarized “light toxins” triggered via anthropogenic components equivalent to mirrored image off asphalt surfaces, glass panes, automobile our bodies, and different man-made constructions which are referred to now to shape ecological traps for polarotactic bugs. half III surveys many of the sensible functions of polarization imaginative and prescient together with polarization-based traps for biting bugs, ground-based polarimetric cloud detectors and an historic exam of the navigational talents of Viking seafarers utilizing the sky polarization compass. The deterrent features of ungulate pelage to polarization-sensitive biting bugs is additionally tested during this section.
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Additional info for Polarized Light and Polarization Vision in Animal Sciences (Springer Series in Vision Research)
J Insect Morphol Embryol 10:331–344 Smola U, Wunderer H (1981) Fly rhabdomeres twist in vivo. J Comp Physiol 142:43–49 Stavenga DG, Matsushita A, Arikawa K, Leertouwer HL, Wilts BD (2012) Glass scales on the wing of the swordtail butterfly Graphium sarpedon act as thin film polarizing reflectors. J Exp Biol 215:657–662 Stephens GC, Fingerman M (1953) The orientation of Drosophila to plane polarized light. Ann Entomol Soc Am 46:75–83 Stockhammer K (1956) Die Wahrnehmung der Schwingungsrichtung linear polarisierten Lichtes bei Insekten.
To our knowledge, ball-rolling dung beetles are the only animals with a visual compass system that ignore the extra orientation precision that landmarks can offer. These beetles, unlike most insect navigators, do not need to locate a stationary nest at the end of their foraging journey. This makes the nature of their orientation task fundamentally different, and in the case of the straight-line orientation, celestial compass cues appear to provide the precision these beetles need to ensure a safe exit from the dung pile.
Zambesianus was the only animal that had been observed to orient using the dim polarization pattern of the moonlit sky. Recently, we demonstrated that the nocturnal dung beetle Scarabaeus satyrus also uses this cue to orient (el Jundi et al. 2014) (Fig. 4d). The main difference between the dim light activity of these two species is that S. zambesianus will only remain active on nights when the moon has risen in conjunction with the setting sun, while S. satyrus can function on every night of the lunar month.