Semiconductor Surfaces and Interfaces (Springer Series in by Winfried Mönch

By Winfried Mönch

This 3rd variation has been completely revised and up-to-date. specifically it now comprises an intensive dialogue of the band lineup at semiconductor interfaces. The unifying suggestion is the continuum of interface-induced hole states.

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According to the tight-binding approach discusscd previously, the respective dangling-bond levels are below the valence-band maximum so that in thermal equilibrium, they should be occupied by two electrons. This might be achieved by an electron transfer from one half of the surface atoms to the other half. Such charge redistribution would require a rearrangement of surface atoms and a rehybridization of the bonds in the selvedge which results in severe surface strain. Whether or not such simple considerations may be applied depends on the delicate balance between an energy gain due to variations of the electronic surface band structure and an increase of the surface energy due to strain which results from distortions of the tetrahedral Sp3 bonds in layers below the top one.

Data from Bachmann [1968] -~~~~---r p-type ~ U"-\n_type ~ L.. 5 '---_ _ ~'---_---'_ _ _ _ 500 300 J. ____ ~ 700 K Temperature of the type of bulk doping [Bachmann 1968]. 3 eV [Guichar et al. 7 eV above the valence-band maximum irrespective of whether the samples are doped p- or n-type. Such behavior is commonly referred to as a pinning of the Fermi level at the surface. To be somewhat more precise, the limits of experimental error have to be considered in such statements. Measurements using Kelvin probes are accurate to approximately ± 20 me V.

4) may be written as provided the donors and acceptors are assumed to be completely ionized in the bulk or, in other words, the semiconductor is in the exhaustion (or saturation) range. 18) With the help of these reduced quantities, the electron and hole densities are obtained as 22 10 3. - - - - - - , - - - - - - . - - - - - , - - - - - - - - , nm Fig. 19b) at any position in a semiconductor. 5) at room temperature. 22) Both characteristic lengths are related as (LDi/ LD)2 = (nb + Pb)/2nj = cosh Ub.

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