By Edward Petersen
This publication introduces the elemental options essential to comprehend unmarried occasion phenomena that may reason random functionality mistakes and catastrophic disasters to electronics units. As miniaturization of electronics elements advances, electronics parts are extra weak within the radiation setting. The ebook incorporates a dialogue of the radiation environments in house and within the surroundings, radiation price prediction counting on the orbit to permit electronics engineers to layout and choose radiation tolerant elements and structures, and unmarried occasion prediction.
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Extra resources for Single Event Effects in Aerospace
The two data envelopes are countercyclic. Note that the terrestrial ﬂux of hadrons has ordinate units of “% below 1954 minimum” and shows a maximum effect of the solar cycle on the particle ﬂux of 25% [Ziegler 2004]. We should not be confused when we read that the maximum cosmic ray ﬂuxes occur for solar minimum. CHAPTER 2 Foundations of Single Event Analysis and Prediction 0 Neutron Flux Colorade, USA (Scale Left) Sunspot Number (Scale Right) 200 10 100 Sunspot Number Tarrestrial Cosmic Rays (% Below 1954 Maximum) 22 20 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 Year Figure 2-7 Variation in cosmic rays due to the solar cycle [Ziegler 2004].
Figure 2-15 shows these relationships. The energy is expressed in MeV per nucleon rather than just MeV. This is because the equations that describe the energy spectra use the parameter of energy/nucleon, rather than just energy. It also nicely compresses the scale. Note that the energy loss in Figure 2-2 was expressed in the same way. An alpha particle (4 nucleons) at 10 MeV per nucleon has 40 MeV, whereas a proton (1 nucleon) has only 10 MeV. Figure 2-16 shows the cosmic ray abundances for all ions.
The top of the atmosphere is at approximately 150,000 feet. Figure 2-55 shows the general nature of cosmic ray showers. As the heavy ions are rapidly eliminated, and as there are many more protons than heavy ions, the high energy protons dominate the showers. By the time that the cosmic rays reach the earth there are two components: the relatively low energy components that are of interest to us, up to several hundred MeV, and a small high energy component that can still penetrate several hundred meters of rock.