By Hideshi Hattori, Yoshi Ono
Solids that own acidic houses on their surfaces functionality as catalysts similar to liquid acids, similar to sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid. through the use of sturdy acid catalysts, chemical strategies turn into extra effective and extra environmentally pleasant. in reality, sturdy acids are getting used in lots of commercial chemical approaches from the biggest chemical means of catalytic cracking in petroleum refining to the synthesis of varied superb chemical substances. This ebook covers the basics of stable acid catalysis, together with its historical past and characterization, and discusses varieties of catalysts and sturdy acid-catalyzed reactions in addition to their commercial purposes. It comprehensively covers from basics to purposes and may be necessary for college students, younger researchers, and complex researchers.
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Additional info for Solid Acid Catalysis: From Fundamentals to Applications
02 m2 g–1). In order to overcome this drawback of the material, a Nafion resin–silica nanocomposite with high surface area (200 m2 g–1) has been developed. In the nanocomposite, nanometersized Nafion resin particles are entrapped within a highly porous silica network, which significantly improves the accessibility to the acid groups. 10. Sulfonic acid–type Brønsted acids can be introduced on the surfaces of solids such as silica gel and mesoporous silica. 2. O O O Si SO3H 25 Solid Acid Catalysis Amorphous carbon material bearing sulfo groups is very active solid acids .
1 Reaction of Hydrocarbons with Brønsted Acid Sites: Formation of Carbocations and Their Reactions Reactions of hydrocarbons such as cracking, alkylation, and isomerization are of utmost importance in the chemical industry, in particular in petroleum refining and in the production of petrochemicals. Most of the reactions are catalyzed by Brønsted acids sites and proceed through carbocations as intermediates. As catalysts, zeolites are most often used for hydrocarbon reactions. 1 Carbocation, carbonium ion, and carbenium ion The intermediacy of trivalent carbenium ions (which were called carbonium ions at that time) in hydrocarbon reactions was proposed by Whitmore in 1932 .
There should be many cases in which two or more than two functions are required, such as acid–base, acid–redox, and acid–metal. Since the location of different active sites on the surface is possible for solid acid catalysts, the design of such multifunctional catalysts is promising. (4) Exploration of the reactions over solid Lewis acid catalysts and preparation of solid Lewis acid catalysts: In most of the reactions studied with solid acid catalysts so far, active sites are Brønsted acid sites.