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Additional resources for Soviet satellite communications science and technology
If the satellite then the sum G/T one radiated of 15 meters (dB)/kelvin orbit to earth, carriers and has the capability from a description given by Kantor and "bent-pipe" to design and of the Soviet national Timofeyev (1988), and a_ to this report. current capabilities, of skills needed satellite the Soviet to construct communications IV-8 technology spaceworthy payload, must critical such as: include components solar arrays for source power; batteries low- and high-power nology); for operation in the dark; TWTs and klystrons microwave cavity filters electronic (both of which (evidence power conditioners; are vacuum-tube of the use of lightweight tech- carbon fiber composites was not found); solid-state mixers and frequency converters; solidstate, low-noise receivers; and conventional single-element linear and circular polarized reflector-type and horn receive communications satellites currently being axis stabilized 2.
3. satellites, and horns. _ve both deployable solar arrays rather and than body-mounted cells and the off-axis feed antennas feeds and simpler the antenna reflectors have center feeds, found in the West; this indicates smaller beam patterns. 2 CURRENT SOVIET NON-MILITARY Molniya- 3 Molniya (12-hour) Orbit First launch success 23 Apr 65 Stabilization Power, Three-axis watts COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITES Ekran Statsionar (Geostationary) Raduga Statsionar (Geostationary) 26 Oct 76 22 Dec 75 Three-axis Gorizont Statsionar (Geostationary) 5 Ju179 Three-axis Three-axis 700 1,500 700 1,300 1,500 2,000 1,250 1,000 3 3 5 5 Transponders 3 1 10 8 EIRP, dBW 32 52 29 28-46 Mass, kg Design lifetime (years) ,,,,, Source: The 1990 World Satellite Directory The Ekran system, a TV direct bands from 702 to 726 MHz and broadcast satellite, operates in the frequency from 742 to 766 MHz.
Furthermore, because the US technical literature is far less restrictive in material regarding advanced technology, a good student everything s/he needs to know to understand and design needed are the materials and facilities to construct devices. The principal reason state technology to fabricate for the narrow is lack of the facilities devices that consistently do not possess scale) devices for intelligence These applications Fabrication a capability strate of solid-state the patterns the layers process requires machines and using of the devices of dopants The Soviet Union devices, is behind such applications.