Testing Static Random Access Memories: Defects, Fault Models by Said Hamdioui

By Said Hamdioui

Testing Static Random entry Memories covers checking out of 1 of the $64000 semiconductor thoughts kinds; it addresses trying out of static random entry thoughts (SRAMs), either single-port and multi-port. It contributes to the technical recognize wanted by way of these considering reminiscence checking out, engineers and researchers. The ebook starts off with outlining the preferred SRAMs architectures. Then, the outline of real looking fault types, in line with disorder injection and SPICE simulation, are brought. Thereafter, prime quality and occasional fee attempt styles, in addition to try techniques for single-port, two-port and any p-port SRAMs are offered, including a few initial attempt effects exhibiting the significance of the recent exams in lowering DPM point. The impression of the port regulations (e.g., read-only ports) at the fault types, assessments, and try out recommendations is additionally mentioned.
Features:
-Fault primitive dependent research of reminiscence faults,
-A whole framework of and type reminiscence faults,
-A systematic option to improve optimum and top of the range reminiscence try algorithms,
-A systematic strategy to enhance try out styles for any multi-port SRAM,
-Challenges and tendencies in embedded reminiscence checking out.

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Additional info for Testing Static Random Access Memories: Defects, Fault Models and Test Patterns (Frontiers in Electronic Testing)

Example text

12. Stuck-At Fault (SAF): A cell is said to have a stuck-at fault if it remains always stuck at a given value for all performed operations. Depending on the value the cell remains stuck at, the SAF has two FPs: < V/O/- > and < V/1/ - >. V symbolizes all possible sensitizing operations. Therefore, S = V can be replaced by any operation that sensitizes the fault. 3. Single-port faults 47 • < '<1/0/- > = {< 1/0/- >, < Ow1/0/- >, < 1w1/0/- >} • < '<1/1/- >. , if the faulty behavior of a cell is said to resemble < '<1/0/- >, then the cell exhibits the faulty behavior of each of the three FPs {< 1/0/- >, < Ow1/0/- >, < lwl/O/- >}.

A single bit line is used for reading data, and another single bit line is used for writing data. , no read/write port. It has the best electrical characteristics, since the addition of transistors M7 and M8 allows for a read operation to have a very small load on the cell. However, it occupies a large area. 14(b) [46] gives another implementation of a MP cell with separate read and write ports. This circuit has four ports: two Pro and two Pwo. A single bit line scheme is used for both read and write operations.

1r1/1/? /- > < rx/? /0 >, < rx/? /1 >, < rx/? /? > < \;//0/->, < \;//1/-> {< Ow1/0/->, < 1wO/1/->, < rx/x/? /-> 1. State Fault {SF}: A cell is said to have a state fault if the logic value of the cell flips before it is accessed, even if no operation is performed on itl. This fault is special in the sense that no operation is needed to sensitize it and, therefore, it only depends on the initial stored value in the cell. The SF consists of two FPs: < 0/1/- > and < 1/0/- >. 2. 'Iransition Fault {TF}: A cell is said to have a transition fault if it fails to undergo a transition (0 ---+ lor 1 ---+ 0) when it is written.

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