By Denis Twitchett
This primary of 2 volumes at the Sung Dynasty (960-1279) and its 5 Dynasties and Southern Kingdoms precursors offers the political background of China from the autumn of the T'ang Dynasty in 907 to the Mongol conquest of the Southern Sung in 1279. Its twelve chapters survey the personalities and occasions that marked the increase, consolidation, and dying of the Sung polity in the course of an period of profound social, monetary, and highbrow ferment. The authors position specific emphasis at the emergence of a politically wakeful literati category throughout the Sung, characterised by way of the expanding significance of the exam method early within the dynasty and at the upward push of the tao-hsueh (Neo-Confucian) circulation towards the top. moreover, they spotlight the destabilizing effect of factionalism and ministerial despotism on Sung political tradition and the effect of the robust steppe empires of the Khitan Liao, Tangut Hsi Hsia, Jurchen Chin, and Mongol Yüan at the form and pace of Sung dynastic occasions.
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Additional info for The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 5 Part One: The Five Dynasties and Sung China And Its Precursors, 907-1279 AD
Wu rule usurped from within by Southern T’ang, 937. Yang-chou, then Chin-ling (mod. Nanking). Controlled major portions of the lower Yangtze and Kan River valleys (Huai-nan East and West Chiang-nan East and West circuits during the Sung, modern Anhwei and Kiangsi provinces). Former Shu 907–925 Wang Chien (c. 848–918). Butcher, salt smuggler, and ¨ outlaw leader in Hsu-chou–Ts’ai-chou region (Sung Ching-hsi North, modern Honan), joins T’ang forces against Huang Ch’ao, named military governor of Western Szechwan in 891, assumes title of emperor in 907.
5–9. Joseph R. Levenson, Confucian China and its modern fate (Berkeley, 1965), vol. 2, p. 64. Literatus influence on Chinese cultural institutions is a theme in many of the chapters in The Song-Yuan-Ming transition in Chinese history, ed. , 2003). introduction: the sung dynasty and its precursors 15 a cycle of state building on the steppe, tenth to thirteenth centuries Overviews of Inner Asian state formation by Nicola Di Cosmo and Frederick W. 13 Over the long term, Inner Asian state formation was often precipitated by economic, social, or political crises that stimulated the militarization of pastoral societies.
For Di Cosmo, the development of forms of “state appropriation” of economic resources evolved over time: “Cast in a historical perspective, inner Asian state formations . . ”15 13 14 15 Nicola Di Cosmo models Inner Asian state building over the imperial era in his “State formation and periodization in Inner Asian history,” Journal of World History 10 No. 1 (1999), pp. 1–40; Frederick W. Mote surveys the formation of individual frontier states and empires in the mid-imperial era in Frederick W.