By Herbert Franke, Denis C. Twitchett
This quantity bargains with 4 non-Chinese regimes: the Khitan dynasty of Liao; the Tangut country of Hsi Hsia; the Jurchen empire of Chin; and the Mongolian Yuan dynasty that at last engulfed the complete of China. It investigates the ancient historical past from which those regimes emerged and indicates how each one in its personal method manage workable associations for the regulate of a multi-racial, multi-lingual, and multi-cultural inhabitants. It discusses those difficulties not only as a protracted unfavorable episode in China's heritage, yet indicates the ingenuity and flexibility of those states, and their good fortune achieve political and social balance. the quantity provides the fullest chronological account of the interval, within which political, institutional, social, and monetary adjustments are built-in so far as attainable, and sees the interval opposed to a vast historical past of diplomacy in Northern and critical Asia.
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Extra resources for The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 6: Alien Regimes and Border States, 907-1368
For much of that period China was divided into as many as nine or ten regional states, and until 960 the north was ruled by a succession of unstable and short-lived military regimes. During that period, military force determined the shape of politics and continued to be a major factor in the first decades of the Sung. Not only was the early tenth century dominated by the generals in north China; it also was a period during which many of the regional warlords were non-Han generals, particularly Sha-t'o Turks.
And these various adaptations took place in a world that was fundamentally changing. THE LATE T'ANG BALANCE OF POWER One of the problems of traditional Chinese historiography in its dealings with foreign peoples has been its failure to match unchanging theory with constantly evolving actuality. The ancient ideal of the "five zones of submission" envisioned a world in which China, or rather its ruling dynasty, the bearers of the Mandate of Heaven to control mankind, were the sole legitimate possessors of unquestioned authority - authority that was at once political, cultural, and moral.
Peking pp. R. XXIX Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 pp. 151-2 Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 INTRODUCTION The four regimes that form the subject matter of this volume have generally received negative treatment from traditional Chinese historians and have been viewed as an interruption in the grand sweep of Chinese history. Each was established by a non-Chinese ruling group, who maintained their own cultural identity while ruling over a multiethnic state including large Han Chinese populations, and each controlled large territories that had long been ruled by Chinese.