By Rebecca Kolins Givan, Kenneth M. Roberts, Sarah A. Soule
It really is well known that social hobbies may perhaps unfold - or "diffuse" - from one web site to a different. Such diffusion, notwithstanding, is a posh and multidimensional strategy that consists of various actors, networks, and mechanisms. This complexity has spawned a wide physique of literature on assorted features of the diffusion procedure, but a complete framework continues to be an elusive objective. This e-book is a reaction to that desire, and its framework specializes in 3 uncomplicated analytical questions. First, what's being subtle? this question directs awareness to either the protest repertoires and interpretive frames that actors build to outline concerns and mobilize political claims. moment, how does diffusion ensue? This ebook focuses recognition at the activist networks and conversation channels that facilitate diffusion, together with discussion, rumors, the mass media, the web, NGOs, and organizational agents. ultimately, what's the effect of diffusion on organizational improvement and shifts within the scale of contentious politics? This quantity means that diffusion isn't an easy topic of political contagion or imitation; really, it's a artistic and strategic strategy marked by means of political studying, variation, and innovation.
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Extra resources for The Diffusion of Social Movements: Actors, Mechanisms, and Political Effects
Whether the frames advocated by nonstate actors will resonate with their targets is contingent on the dynamic interaction of both the political opportunity structure in which they are embedded and the mobilizing structures they have at their disposal. The example of the way sexual harassment became a central issue across Europe serves to demonstrate how diffusion is a political process in which actors at different levels adopt and adapt foreign examples to make national and transnational claims and change institutional and legal settings, build alliances, and exert pressure.
On one hand, feminists recognized the problem of gender and power at work in which sexuality and harassment were used as tools both by superiors and colleagues to keep women in subordinate positions. As a Dutch feminist active within the largest Dutch trade union observed: [W]e knew it was happening, it was by no means a new problem. Unwanted sexual behavior had occurred ever since men and women were working together. But it was a taboo subject, part and parcel of being a woman active on the labor market, but something you did not speak of.
In processes of scale shift, framing is necessary to help built a common frame of reference that applies to different contexts and contains shared claims. Tarrow (2005) argues that upward scaling requires theorization, whereas for downscaling certification is a crucial framing activity. Theorization may result in shifting claims and targets, and in some case a shift in identity, as boundaries between actors may alter (Tarrow 2005: 122). : 194). In the diffusion of movement ideas to national and supranational institutions, framing helps to build legitimacy, claim recognition, attribute positions and responsibilities, and create strategic coalitions.