The Education of Indigenous Citizens in Latin America by Regina Cortina

By Regina Cortina

This groundbreaking quantity describes unheard of alterations in schooling throughout Latin the US, because of the endorsement of Indigenous peoples' rights in the course of the improvement of intercultural bilingual schooling. The chapters assessment the ways that cultural and language changes are getting used to create nationwide guidelines that verify the presence of Indigenous peoples and their cultures inside Mexico, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Guatemala. Describing the collaboration among grassroots activities and transnational networks, the authors examine how social swap is happening on the neighborhood and neighborhood degrees, and so they current case experiences that light up the growth of intercultural bilingual schooling. This ebook is either a choice to motion for researchers, academics, policy-makers and Indigenous leaders, and a primer for practitioners looking to offer larger studying possibilities for a various scholar body.

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For the past two decades, but more strongly since the 1995–1996 Peace Accords, the country has had neoliberal multiculturalism as government policy (Hale, 2004) in response to international pressure. New institutions have been created: the National Academy for Mayan Languages (1990), the Guatemalan Indigenous Development Fund (1994), a Vice Ministry for Bilingual Intercultural Education (2003) and the Presidential Commission on Racism and Discrimination (2003), among others. The national constitution of 1985 recognizes the right of Indigenous learners to education in their native language and although the legal and official rhetoric is sound and politically correct, vast gaps exist between policy and implementation (United Nations, 2008).

Renewed Indigenous self-esteem and initial nationwide positioning of Indigenous knowledge, culture and languages practically invaded the educational and social scenario of the country (Albó & Anaya, 2003; Noel, 2009), promoting a form of local Indigenous activism, which indeed paved the way for the Indigenous political impetus Bolivia is now undergoing. In Bolivia, Indigenous leaders negotiated with government authorities and, unlike other bottom-up experiences that remained as microlevel initiatives, they managed to have some bearing on educational policies and on national politics in general.

In general, monolingualism persists among women and children under school age. Multilingualism within an extended and exogamous family structure can be the norm in certain Indigenous communities of Brazil and Colombia (Sorensen, 1967; Stenzel, 2005), although with sharp differences and more prevalence in the Vaupes River area of Colombia and Brazil (Stenzel, 2005). A school-age child might speak four or more different Indigenous languages, and, indeed, in many other parts of the Amerindian world, Indigenous individuals and families speak three or four languages.

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