The Open Ocean (Life in the Sea) by Pam Walker

By Pam Walker

It's only average for individuals to be serious about the ocean. existence originated within the oceans, and greater than one-half of the folk on the earth dwell inside 50 miles of the ocean. notwithstanding, even supposing we've got despatched explorers to the moon and different areas of house, we nonetheless understand little in regards to the frontier that surrounds us. The enticing new "Life within the Sea" set offers younger readers with present, available information regarding the ocean and its creatures. This accomplished source at the ocean's population provides dwelling issues of their actual habitats, emphasizing the connection among marine biology and marine ecology. every one quantity specializes in one particular sector of the marine international, discussing its actual features, the residing issues came upon there, and the effect people have at the quarter. the appropriate significant other to "Facts On File's lifestyles in the world" set (see dealing with page), this valuable reference offers a well-rounded view of marine existence.

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Another group of photosynthetic protists, the coccolithophores, are organisms covered with microscopic calcium carbonate plates. Like many other types of phytoplankton, Microbes and Plants dense populations of coccolithophores live at the surface of the water. One species, Emiliania huxleyi, or Ehux, is found worldwide except for polar climates. During blooms, billions of white Ehux cells can give thousands of square miles of ocean surface water a milky turquoise appearance. When the organisms die, their coccoliths accumulate in thick layers on the seafloor.

Hexactinellida, also small sponges, have silica spicules resembling threads of glass, giving the group the common name of glass sponges. The body of a glass sponge is unique because it is made up of one big cell instead of millions of small cells, as in other animals. Nuclei are spread throughout the cellular mass, but no cell membranes separate them. The familiar bath sponges, class Demospongia, are larger than most other types of sponges, and their exoskeletons are not as hard because their spicules are made of spongin.

Some marine invertebrates are sessile organisms, nonmotile creatures that spend most of their lives in one place. Nutritionally, most of these are classi- Sponges, Cnidarians, and Worms 41 fied as either filter or suspension feeders. Filter feeders strain bits of organic matter from the seawater, while suspension feeders scoop up sediment and extract organic material from it. Other invertebrates are motile predators that capture small animals either by pursuing or by ambushing them. Some of the simplest invertebrates are sponges, cnidarians, and worms.

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