By W. Travis Hanes, Frank Sanello
During this tragic and strong tale, the 2 Opium Wars of 1839–1842 and 1856–1860 among Britain and China are acknowledged for the 1st time during the eyes of the chinese language in addition to the Imperial West. Opium entered China throughout the heart a while while Arab investors introduced it into China for medicinal reasons. because it took carry as a leisure drug, opium wrought havoc on chinese language society. through the early 19th century, ninety percentage of the Emperor’s court docket and nearly all of the military have been opium addicts.Britain used to be additionally a country addicted-to tea, grown in China, and paid for with gains made of the opium exchange. while China attempted to prohibit using the drug and bar its Western smugglers from it gates, England determined to struggle to maintain open China’s ports for its importation. England, the superpower of its time, controlled to take action in wars, leading to a drug-induced devastation of the chinese language people who could final a hundred and fifty years.In this page-turning, dramatic and colourful background, The Opium Wars responds to prior, biased Western money owed by way of representing the ignored chinese language model of the tale and displaying how the wars stand as one of many huge clashes among the cultures of East and West."A nice renowned account."-Publishers Weekly"Their account of the reasons, army campaigns and tragic results of those wars is soaking up, usually macabre and deeply unsettling."-Booklist
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Extra info for The Opium Wars
In fact, his orders from the Foreign Office were to make sure Britain’s drug of choice, tea, made it safely out of China and into the teacups of English drawing rooms for the ritual afternoon tea. Elliot chose to ignore the fact that opium paid for the tea. In November 1836, five months after Elliot’s arrival, the Daoguang Emperor issued an edict banning both the importation and use of opium throughout China. In December 1836, the new governor (or viceroy) of Canton’s province, a venerable scholar of sixty named Deng Tingzhen, proclaimed, “The smoke of opium is a deadly poison.
Over a scarlet suit, Macartney wore the sash, diamond badge, and star that represented his membership in Britain’s exclusive chivalric order, the Knights of the Bath. ” A generation later, the younger George would play a pivotal role in the worsening relations between Britain and China. Before the British ambassador could discuss the purpose of his mission, however, there was the problem of bowing—kowtowing—to the Emperor. The ritual actually consisted of bowing, then kneeling, and then placing the supplicant’s forehead on the floor nine times.
Decriminalizing its use, they argued, would permit them to regulate it and even tax it. Others, however, took a hard line. Not only did they insist that the drug traffic should be stopped, the also began to argue for serious efforts to halt or punish users. In 1838, the Daoguang Emperor called for recommendations from his governors general and other officials on the best approach to take to the problem. After hearing both sides of the debate, the emperor decided to follow the advice of the hardliners—notably that of the governor of Hubei and Hunan, Lin Zexu.