By Bertrand Russell
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Additional info for The Problem Of China (1922)
Abolished the elections, set aside the Imperial Academy, and inaugurated the competitive examination system in their place. The examinations were to supply both scholars and practical statesmen, and they were periodically held throughout the later dynasties until the introduction of the Useless and stereotyped as they were in later days, they once served some useful purpose. is laid by these examinations on pure literary attain ments, moral teachings have survived till this day in family education and in private schools.
1 Customs China, in 1842, we concluded a treaty which provided duty at treaty ports of 5 per cent, on all imports and not more than 5 per cent on exports. This for a treaty is the basis of the whole Customs system. At the end of our next war, in 1858, we drew up a schedule of conventional prices on which the 6 per cent, was to be calculated. * Revision change the in the conventional tariff, which remains fixed at 5 per cent. Change in the tariff is practi since China has concluded commercial cally impossible, treaties involving a most-favoured-nation clause, and the same tariff, with twelve States besides Great Britain, and therefore any change in the tariff requires the unanimous consent of thirteen Powers.
Was essentially conservative, and aimed the virtues of former ages. His outlook at preserving He accepted the existing BEFORE THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 89 a rather unemphatic monotheism, combined religion with belief that the spirits of the dead preserved a shadowy existence, which it was the duty of their descendants to render as comfortable as possible. He did not, however, lay any stress upon supernatural matters. " x But reverence for spiritual beings was not an active part of Confucianism, except in the form of ancestor- worship, which was part of filial piety, and thus merged in duty towards one s neighbour.