The Rise of Universities by Charles Homer Haskins

By Charles Homer Haskins

The foundation and nature of the earliest universities are the themes of this well-known and witty set of lectures by means of the guy whom eminent students have referred to as "without exaggeration . . . the soul of the renascence of medieval reports within the United States." nice because the variations are among the earliest universities and people of this present day, the very fact continues to be, says Professor Haskins, the "the college of the 20 th century is the lineal descendant of medieval Paris and Bologna." In demonstrating this truth, he brings to lifestyles the associations, guide, professors, and scholars of the center a long time.

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In this context, the imposition of an interpretation upon the ambiguity and contingency of social life always results in an other being marginalized. Meaning and identity are, therefore, always the consequence of a relationship between the self and the other which emerges through the imposition of an interpretation, rather than being the product of uncovering an exclusive domain with its own preestablished identity. A reconceptualization of foreign policy along these lines is not only theoretically wellgrounded, but also provides a means of critically exploring the open-ended character of the foreign policy texts which have been important in establishing the discursive boundaries of US foreign policy.

363-72. Some have seen in thi relatively mild debate the prospects for another synthesis, although a number of European historians downplay the corporatist emphasis on the pivotal role of the United States in post-war European economic development. See Lawrence S. Kaplan, 'The cold war and European revisionism,' Diplomatic History, XI, 1987, pp. 143-56. 20 See Edward Thompson et al, Exterminism and Cold War, London, 1982; Kaldor, 'Afte the cold war,' New Left Review, CLXXX, 1990, pp. 25-37; Michael Cox, 'From the Truman doctrine to the second superpower detente: the rise and fall of the cold war,' Journal of Peace Research, XXVII, 1990, pp.

This concern to establish an ordered international environment in which the United States could survive in line with its fundamental purpose mandated two policies: 'One is a policy which we would probably pursue even if there were no Soviet threat. It is a policy of attempting to develop a healthy international community. The other is the policy of "containing" the Soviet system. '36 Binding these policies together was the issue of freedom: 'The hopes of frustrating the Kremlin design are centered 25 Writing security in the strategy of freedom .

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