The Science of Defoaming: Theory, Experiment and by Peter R. Garrett

By Peter R. Garrett

In the twenty years because the book of the author’s multi-contributor quantity on defoaming, an enormous volume of recent paintings has been released and plenty of new insights were printed. A cohesive, single-authored ebook, The technological know-how of Defoaming: idea, scan and Applications presents complete insurance of the subject. It describes the mode of motion of antifoams, offering the correct conception and the assisting experimental facts. starting with an introductory bankruptcy that discusses the intrinsic homes of froth, the ebook then describes experimental equipment for measuring foam houses very important for learning antifoam motion and methods utilized in setting up the mode of motion of antifoams.

Since so much commercially powerful antifoams are oil established, a bankruptcy is dedicated to the access and spreading habit of oils and the position of skinny movie forces in making a choice on that habit. The e-book experiences the mode of motion of antifoams, together with theories of antifoam mechanisms and the position of bridging foam movies through debris and oil drops. It additionally addresses matters on the topic of the influence of antifoam focus on foam formation by way of air entrainment and the method of deactivation of combined oil–particle antifoams in the course of dispersal and foam generation.

For functions the place chemical antifoam use is unacceptable, the textual content examines mechanical technique of defoaming, corresponding to using rotary units and ultrasound. the ultimate chapters reflect on the appliance of defoaming in significantly varied contexts together with waterborne latex paints and varnishes, laptop washing of textiles, gas–oil separation in crude oil creation, and cardiopulmonary skip surgical procedure. targeting the fundamental technology of defoaming, this ebook offers a balanced view, which additionally addresses the demanding situations which may come up for those particular defoaming applications.

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Additional info for The Science of Defoaming: Theory, Experiment and Applications (Surfactant Science)

Sample text

Lemlich [69] has therefore extended the theory of de Vries [10] to account for this generality. This is achieved by introducing the assumption that the gas diffuses either toward or away from a region midway between each of the bubbles in the foam where the chemical potential of the dissolved gas is everywhere the same. That chemical potential is defined by the gas pressure of a notional spherical bubble of radius rmid. Following a similar argument to that of de Vries [10], Lemlich [69] shows that the rate of change of any bubble of radius r b, regardless of relative size, is given by drb RTH E D σ AL  1 1 = 2 .

15 de Vries model [10] of gas diffusion from small bubbles of radius r b in a foam to adjacent large bubbles of radius rb , where rb rb. 22) = DAb ≈ DAb hav hav dt dx where D is the diffusion coefficient of the gas in water, Ab is the area of the bubble, c is the concentration of dissolved gas in the aqueous phase, and x is the distance between bubbles. The concentration gradient of dissolved gas in the aqueous phase between the small bubble and the surrounding larger bubbles, dc/dx, is approximated rather crudely by Δc/hav, where hav is a supposed average thickness of the liquid gap between the bubbles.

It is therefore important to clearly define the nature of the pressure distribution in the continuous phase of a foam as represented by the system of Plateau border channels. In this, we follow closely the arguments of Princen [61]. We first consider a polydisperse foam under mechanical equilibrium where drainage is absent. 13. The continuous gas–liquid surface at y = 0 covers the dome-shaped tops of bubbles and the upper Plateau borders. 13 Schematic illustration of factors contributing to Plateau border pressure in foam.

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