By Scott Burchill, Andrew Linklater, Richard Devetak, Jack Donnelly, Matthew Paterson, Christian Reus-Smit, Jacqui True
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Extra info for Theories of International Relations, Third Edition
Wohlforth 1999, however, rejects this argument. ) But whatever the resilience of unipolarity, while it persists hegemony (and Jack Donnelly 39 resistance to it) will give international relations a very different character from systems with two or more great powers. Schweller (1998) has shown that tripolar systems have a distinctive structural logic. And systems with very many or no great powers – the two are effectively equivalent – have a different structural logic than multipolar systems with a few (four, five, or a couple more) great powers.
Hierarchy and anarchy are the two principal political ordering principles. Units either stand in relationships of authority and subordination (hierarchy) or they do not (anarchy). Waltz argues that striking qualitative differences exist ‘between politics conducted in a condition of settled rules and politics conducted in a condition of anarchy’ (1979: 61). Some of those differences are the focus of the following sub-sections. ‘Hierarchy entails relations of super- and subordination among a system’s parts, and that implies their differentiation’ (1979: 93).
I’m as good as you are and thus ought to have (at least) as much as you. But scarcity prevents each from having as much as he desires – which makes men enemies. Jack Donnelly 33 Enmity is exacerbated by competition, diffidence and glory. ‘The first maketh men invade for gain; the second, for safety; and the third, for reputation’ (para. 7). Even where one is not seeking gain, fear of others leads to defensive war, for ‘there is no way for any man to secure himself so reasonable as anticipation’ (para.