By Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak, Alwyn C. Scott
What is realization? fresh makes an attempt to respond to this query have influenced interdisciplinary meetings subsidized by means of the college of Arizona in Tucson. the 1st quantity of towards a technological know-how of attention is now thought of a source e-book for the rising box. This quantity provides a range of invited papers from the second one convention, held in April 1996. The book's fifteen sections reveal the wide variety of fields now concentrating on awareness. The sections contain philosophy, cognitive technological know-how, medication, neurobiology, neural correlates, imaginative and prescient, sleep and dreaming, anesthesia, molecular biology and evolution, quantum thought, spacetime, hierarchial association, and experiential ways. each one part is preceded through an outline and remark. The individuals contain Bernard Baars, Ned Block, David J. Chalmers, Patricia S. Churchland, Daniel C. Dennett, Jeffrey grey, Daniel Hillis, J. Allan Hobson, Stephen LaBerge, Jaron Lanier, Daniel S. Levine, Nikos ok. Logothetis, Gary E. Schwartz, John R. Searle, Roger N. Shepard, Henry P. Stapp, Petra Stoerig, Charles T. Tart, John Taylor, Francisco J. Varela, Max Velmans, Roger Walsh, and Lawrence Weiskantz.
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Extra resources for Toward a Science of Consciousness II: The Second Tucson Discussions and Debates (Complex Adaptive Systems)
If it seems to me I am conscious, then I am conscious. That is not an epistemic point. It does not imply that we have certain knowledge of the nature of our conscious states. Page 28 On the contrary, we are frequently mistaken about our own conscious states, for example, in the case of phantom limb pains. The statement is a point about the ontology of conscious states. When we study consciousness scientifically, I believe we should forget our obsession with reductionism and seek causal explanations.
Given the way that nature works, the primary function of the wings of most speces of birds is to enable them to fly. And the fact that we can imagine a science-fiction world in which birds fly just as well without wings is really irrelevant to the evolutionary question. Similarly, the way that human and animal intelligence works is through consciousness. We can easily imagine a science-fiction world in which unconscious zombies behave exactly as we do. Indeed, I actually constructed such a thought experiment to illustrate certain philosophical points about the separability of consciousness and behavior.
Thus, the addition in the calculator is not intrinsic to the circuit, but the addition in me is intrinsic to my mental life. To make the distinction between the cases that are intrinsically information bearing and symbol manipulating from those that are observer relative we need the notion of consciousness. Therefore, we cannot explain the notion of consciousness in terms of information processing and symbol manipulation. Conclusion We need to take consciousness seriously as a biological phenomenon.