By Charles Harvie
Vietnam's daring financial reforms initiated below the identify of Doi Moi in 1986 have produced awesome fiscal results that have interested economists, company humans, trade scholars, political scientists and executive advisors alike world wide. This ebook surveys very important facets of those advancements, analyses the most contributing components, offers worthwhile references on constructing and transitional economies, and information soundly researched customers in exchange, funding and company during this new swiftly constructing marketplace economic climate in East Asia.
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Additional resources for Vietnam's Reforms and Economic Growth
Rail The rail network is government owned and is operated by Vietnamese National Railways (VNR), which is divided into three unions covering the north, the centre and the south of the network. Like the road network, the rail system is badly in need of investment. Bridges, many of which were damaged during the war years, are in need of upgrading, and tunnels, track and rolling stock are also dilapidated. The existence of different gauges is an additional problem. A Vietnamese-Japanese study of the rail system puts investment requirements at US$862 million.
The literacy rate among the 10-34 age group was 94% and fell the older the age group. The literacy rate for those over 65 fell to only 48%. There are also wide differences in literacy levels between the urban and rural populations and between regions, indicative of different geographical conditions, infrastructure facilities and levels. The government is aware of the need to provide equal access to education for the different regions of the country as a means of reducing inequalities, as well as to develop a strong human resource base so essential to the future development of the economy.
Serious air pollution is caused by Vietnam's heavy industry, • overfishing in some areas is endangering the coastal marine ecology, • tourist resorts and golf course developments have received local opposition on the grounds of environmental damage. Such environmental threats led the government to take measures during the 1990s to protect it. A National Conservation Strategy was formulated in 1984, however it was not until 1991 that the government set out the National Plan for the Environment and Sustainable Development.