By Julian Thornton
* Addresses each point of water loss and identifies the easiest resolution
* Covers mapping instruments and methods, leak detection and service, and gear wishes
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Additional info for Water loss control manual, 1st Edition
Apparent losses: All types of inaccuracies associated with customer metering and billing, plus unauthorized consumption (theft or illegal use). 3. Real losses: Physical water losses from the pressurized system, up to the point of measurement of customer use. The annual volume lost through all types of leaks, bursts, and overflows depends on frequencies, flow rates, and average duration of individual leaks, bursts, and overflows. The calculation procedure is as follows: ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ Obtain system input volume and correct for known errors.
The IWA Task Force recommendations were mentioned in a presentation to the American Water Works Association Distribution Systems Symposium in Reno, Nevada, in 1999. As a result of the interest this generated, the Leak Detection and Water Accountability Committee of the American Water Works Association encouraged a number of utilities to volunteer water audit and other data, to apply the approach to North American supply systems. 5. 5 were entered alongside the values from the 27 systems from 20 countries in the IWA international data set.
Using the standard international methodology, comparisons of the performance of various North American water utilities with an international data set of 28 systems from 20 countries have been conducted, using both the “traditional” and IWA-recommended performance indicators. 3 A ROSETTA STONE FOR WATER LOSS MEASUREMENT? In 1799, Napoleon’s soldiers found an ancient piece of carved black basalt at Rosetta, near the mouth of the Nile River. The Rosetta stone carried a decree of the Egyptian priests of Ptolemy V.