By Richard Hofstadter
Anti-Intellectualism in American lifestyles was provided the 1964 Pulitzer Prize in Non-Fiction. it's a ebook which throws gentle on many good points of the yank personality. Its main issue isn't purely to painting the scorners of mind in American lifestyles, yet to assert whatever approximately what the highbrow is, and will be, as a strength in a democratic society.
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The corresponding Russian time period, intelligentsia, which got here into use after the center of the 19th century, initially intended individuals of the loose professions, however it, too, quickly took at the connotation of an opponent of the regime. See Hugh Seton-Watson: “The Russian Intellectuals,” stumble upon (September, 1955), pp. 43–50. 1 The Letters of William James (Boston, 1920), Vol. II, pp. 100–1. 2 in this dedication and its results, see Seymour M. Lipset: “American Intellectuals: Their Politics and Status,” Daedalus (Summer, 1959), pp. 460–86. Lipset has many pertinent feedback at the place of yank intellectuals, yet it's not that i am persuaded by way of his argument that their prestige will be defined, with out qualification, as excessive. three kingdom, Vol. 149 (August 19, 1939), p. 228. four This reluctance has been nowhere extra candidly and ingratiatingly expressed than through Senator Barry Goldwater, who affirmed in July 1959: “I am now not keen to just accept the concept that there aren't any Communists left during this kingdom; i believe that if we elevate sufficient rocks, we'll locate a few. ” Quoted by means of James Wechsler: Reflections of an indignant Middle-Aged Editor (New York, 1960), p. forty four. five or even, it seems that, whilst no longer left loose; witness the massive highbrow underground that turns out to have grown up within the Soviet Union and its japanese eu satellites. 6 Characters and occasions (New York, 1929), p. xi. 7 “We continuously most well-liked an ignorant undesirable guy to a skilled one,” wrote B. R. corridor of early Indiana society, “and for this reason makes an attempt have been frequently made to smash the ethical personality of a sensible candidate; due to the fact that unhappily smartness and wickedness have been speculated to be quite often coupled, and incompetence and goodness. ” Baynard R. corridor: the hot buy, or Seven and a part Years within the a ways West (1843; ed. Princeton, 1916), p. one hundred seventy. This happened even one of the Puritans, for all their rationalism and intellectualism. Cf. John Cotton: “The extra discovered and witty you bee, the more healthy to behave for devil will you bee. … Take off the fond doting … upon the educational of the Jesuites, and the glorie of the Episcopacy, and courageous property of the Prelates. I say bee now not deceived with those pompes, and empty shewes, and faire representations of a goodly situation ahead of the eyes of flesh and blood, bee no longer inquisitive about the applause of those individuals. ” The Powring Out of the Seven Vials (London, 1642), The 6th Vial, pp. 39–40. eight Cf. George Ripley in his assault of 1839 on Unitarianism and the Harvard college of divinity: “I have recognized nice and worthwhile results to come up from the straightforward exhibition of the reality of the Gospel to the guts and judgment of right and wrong, via earnest males, who relied on to the intuitive strength of the soul, for the belief of its divinity. … a lot as I worth a valid common sense in its right position, i'm definite it's not the device that is amazing via God to the flattening of the powerful holds of sin. it can observe mistakes; however it can't provide a lot as a glimpse of the honour of Christ. it could refute fallacies; however it can't bind the center to the affection of holiness.