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Dual-energy CT is a unique, quickly rising imaging approach which bargains vital new sensible and particular details. during this publication, physicists and experts from various CT brands supply an perception into the technological foundation of, and the various ways to, dual-energy CT. well known clinical scientists within the box clarify the pathophysiological and molecular heritage of the strategy, speak about its functions, offer targeted recommendation on how you can receive optimum effects, and provide tricks relating to medical interpretation. the focus is at the use of dual-energy CT in day-by-day medical perform, and person sections are dedicated to imaging of the vascular procedure, the thorax, the stomach, and the extremities. reviews and proposals are according to own adventure and peer-reviewed literature. lots of rigorously selected fine quality photographs are incorporated to demonstrate the medical merits of the approach.

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The optimum power should be derived analytically via an research of variance, which demonstrates that the optimum power is close to the typical of the 2 potent energies on the tube potentials. four Determinants of IQ/Dose at present, a number of purposes, akin to bone removing, iodine quantification, and kidney stone characterization were applied clinically. One universal query is whether or not dual-energy CT calls for extra dose than does single-energy CT, acknowledging dual-energy test presents material-specific info as well as photos that mimic a standard single-energy test. both monochromatic photos or combined photographs mixed from the low- and high-tube capability info acquisition may be generated from a dual-energy test. One phantom research played on a dual-source scanner tested that so long as the sufferer isn't too huge, the pictures combined from the low- and high-tube power info yield related or maybe larger iodine CNR than a standard one hundred twenty kV photograph obtained utilizing an identical radiation dose (Yu et al. 2009). determine five compares the iodine CNR within the dual-energy combined photos and the single-energy photographs for a similar radiation dose while the eighty kV dose fraction within the dual-energy scans diversified from zero. three to zero. 7. The CNR values within the dual-energy combined pictures have been among these of the eighty and one hundred forty kV single-energy photos. compared to one hundred twenty kV, that is often utilized in so much grownup CT practices, the CNR within the dual-energy combined pictures used to be comparable or larger. therefore, dual-energy CT may be played normally in small to average-sized sufferers on the similar dose point as single-energy CT, but very likely presents extra diagnostic details than traditional single-energy CT. extra, pseudo monochromatic imaging from dual-energy CT can enormously lessen beam-hardening artifacts (Alvarez and Macovski 1976; Alvarez and Seppi 1979). Fig. 5Iodine distinction to noise ratio (CNR) within the dual-energy combined photographs (black symbols) and the single-energy pictures (grey symbols) for a similar overall radiation dose. The CNR in single-energy photos is proven as a functionality of kV for every phantom measurement. The CNR in dual-energy combined photos is proven while the eighty kV dose fraction assorted from 30 to 70% for every phantom measurement (top horizontal axis). Reprinted with permission from (Yu et al. 2009) one other software of dual-energy CT is digital noncontrast imaging (Johnson et al. 2007). Many CT checks contain scans either sooner than and after distinction injection. Dual-energy CT permits the production of “virtual” precontrast pictures from a postcontrast dual-energy test, which has the capability to prevent the precontrast experiment and thereby to lessen the full radiation dose. in spite of the fact that, the quantity of dose aid is very depending on the picture caliber of the digital noncontrast pictures created in a dual-energy postcontrast experiment. a result of noise amplification in the course of dual-energy processing (Kelcz et al. 1979), the digital pictures frequently be afflicted by a excessive noise point. higher separation among the low- and high-energy X-ray spectra might increase the picture caliber in digital non-contrast pictures and make allowance extra major radiation dose aid (Primak et al.

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