By Walter J. Ong
Walter J. Ong’s vintage paintings presents a desirable perception into the social results of oral, written, revealed and digital applied sciences, and their effect on philosophical, theological, clinical and literary thought.
This 30th anniversary variation – coinciding with Ong’s centenary yr – reproduces his best-known and such a lot influential ebook in complete and brings it brand new with new exploratory essays through cultural author and critic John Hartley.
- A scene-setting bankruptcy that situates Ong’s paintings in the ancient and disciplinary context of post-war Americanism and the increase of communique and media studies;
- A ultimate bankruptcy that follows up Ong’s paintings on orality and literacy relating to evolving media varieties, with a dialogue of modern criticisms of Ong’s procedure, and an review of his notion of the ‘evolution of consciousness’;
- Extensive references to contemporary scholarship on orality, literacy and the research of data applied sciences, tracing alterations in how we all know what we know.
These illuminating essays contextualize Ong inside of contemporary highbrow background, and reveal his work’s carrying on with strength within the ongoing research of the connection among literature and the media, in addition to that of psychology, schooling and sociological thought.
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Extra info for Orality and Literacy: 30th Anniversary Edition (New Accents)
Peasant, 18 years of age); ‘Precious steel rusts. invaluable gold rusts’ (34-year-old illiterate peasant) (1976, p. 104). within the a long way North, the place there's snow, all bears are white. Novaya Zembla is within the a ways North and there's regularly snow there. What colour are the bears? here's a ordinary reaction, ‘I don’t be aware of. I’ve visible a black undergo. I’ve by no means visible any others…. every one locality has its personal animals’ (1976, pp. 108–9). you discover what colour bears are by means of them. Who ever heard of reasoning out in useful lifestyles the colour of a polar undergo? in addition to, how am I definite that you just recognize evidently that every one bears are white in a snowy state? whilst the syllogism is given to him a moment time, a slightly literate 45-year-old chairman of a collective farm manages ‘To cross via your phrases, they need to all be white’ (1976, p. 114) . ‘To cross by means of your phrases’ seems to point know-how of the formal highbrow constructions. a bit literacy is going some distance. nonetheless, the chairman’s restricted literacy leaves him more well-off within the person-to-person human lifeworld than in an international of natural abstractions: ‘To cross by way of your words…. ’ it's your accountability, now not mine, if the reply comes out in the sort of model. bearing on paintings by way of Michael Cole and Sylvia Scribner in Liberia (1973), James Fernandez (1980) mentioned syllogism is self-contained: its conclusions are derived from its premises in basic terms. He notes that folks no longer academically trained are usually not conversant in this targeted flooring rule yet have a tendency fairly of their interpretation of given statements, in a syllogism as in different places, to move past the statements themselves, as one does in most cases in real-life events or in riddles (common in all oral cultures). i might upload the commentary that the syllogism is therefore like a textual content, mounted, boxed-off, remoted. This truth dramatizes the chirographic base of common sense. The riddle belongs within the oral global. to resolve a riddle, canniness is required: one attracts on wisdom, usually deeply unconscious, past the phrases themselves within the riddle. (4) In Luria’s box paintings, requests for definitions of even the main concrete items met with resistance. ‘Try to provide an explanation for to me what a tree is. ’ ‘Why should still I? we all know what a tree is, they don’t want me telling them’, spoke back one illiterate peasant, elderly 22 (1976, p. 86). Why outline, whilst a real-life surroundings is infinitely extra passable than a definition? primarily, the peasant used to be SOME PSYCHODYNAMICS OF ORALITY fifty three correct. there's no method to refute the realm of basic orality. All you are able to do is stroll clear of it into literacy. ‘How could you outline a tree in phrases? ’ ‘In phrases? Apple tree, elm, poplar. ’ ‘Say you visit a spot the place there aren't any autos. what is going to you inform humans [a vehicle is]? ’ ‘If i'm going, I’ll inform them that buses have 4 legs, chairs in entrance for individuals to sit down on, a roof for colour and an engine. but if you get down to it, I’d say: “If you get in a automobile and opt for a force, you’ll discover. ”’ The respondent enumerates a few positive aspects yet turns again eventually to non-public, situational event (1976, p.