By Prashant Saxena
This quantity presents an entire figuring out of the elemental factors of routing congestion in present-day and next-generation VLSI circuits, deals recommendations for estimating and relieving congestion, and gives a severe research of the accuracy and effectiveness of those recommendations.
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Additional info for Routing Congestion in VLSI Circuits: Estimation and Optimization (Integrated Circuits and Systems)
234 7. three ultimate comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 Part I THE ORIGINS OF CONGESTION 1 AN advent TO ROUTING CONGESTION a standard average phone layout comprises wires that enforce the facility offer community, clocks, and sign nets. these types of wires percentage an identical set of routing assets. With the variety of cells in a regular layout turning out to be exponentially and homes of steel wires scaling poorly, the contest for hottest routing assets among some of the interconnects that needs to be routed is turning into extra critical. thus, not just is routing congestion expanding, however it is additionally changing into extra harmful to the standard of the designs. most traditional layout ﬂows synthesize the ability offer and clock networks ahead of the sign routing level. the ability provide and clock nets don't practice any logical operation, yet supply an important logistical help to the circuits that truly enforce the specified logical performance. the ability offer community is designed accounting for a number of elements equivalent to the present requisites of the layout, applicable bounds at the noise within the offer voltage, and electromigration constraints. This community is designed within the kind of a grid which can or will not be typical. commonly, the facility offer community is created ﬁrst and has all of the routing assets to choose between. The clock nets are routed subsequent and now have relative freedom, considering that simply the ability offer grid has used up a number of the routing assets while the clocks are being routed. The clocks, which synchronize the sequential parts within the layout, have strict sign integrity and skew requisites. even though they're often designed as bushes in mainstream designs, high-end designs frequently use extra refined clocking schemes corresponding to grids with the intention to meet their stricter hold up and skew standards (even notwithstanding such schemes can devour signiﬁcantly extra routing resources). additionally, the clock wires tend to be shielded or spaced in order that the indications at the neighboring wires don't distort the clock waveform; the protective and spacing additionally devour a few routing assets. The sign nets are routed final and will basically use the routing assets that experience no longer been occupied via the facility provide and clock wires. accordingly, those are the nets that face the matter of routing congestion such a lot acutely. four 1 AN creation TO ROUTING CONGESTION during this bankruptcy, we are going to ﬁrst introduce the terminology utilized in the context of routing congestion in part 1. 1, reviewing the fundamental routing version alongside the way in which. Then, we are going to inspire the necessity for congestion information via a dialogue of the dangerous eﬀects of congestion in part 1. 2. subsequent, in part 1. three, we'll attempt to comprehend why the matter of routing congestion is getting worse with time. eventually, we'll lay out a roadmap for the remainder of this publication in Sections 1. four and 1. five through overviewing the metrics and the optimization schemes, respectively, which are used for congestion.