By Henry Petroski
A party tradition and know-how, as visible throughout the heritage of the standard but ubiquitous toothpick, from the best-selling writer of The Pencil.
From historic Rome, the place emperor Nero made his front right into a ceremonial dinner corridor with a silver toothpick in his mouth, to nineteenth-century Boston, the place Charles Forster, the daddy of the yankee wood toothpick undefined, ensured toothpicks seemed in each eating place, the toothpick has been an omnipresent, but usually missed a part of our day-by-day lives. the following, with an engineer's eye for element and a poet's aptitude for language, Henry Petroski takes us on a big travel of this finest invention. alongside the way in which, he friends inside of modern day unusually secretive toothpick-manufacturing undefined, and explores a treasure trove of the toothpick's unintentional makes use of and perils, from sandwiches to martinis and past.
Read or Download The Toothpick: Technology and Culture PDF
Similar Engineering books
Complicated Textbooks? overlooked Lectures? thankfully for you, there is Schaum's. greater than forty million scholars have relied on Schaum's Outlines to assist them achieve the school room and on checks. Schaum's is the foremost to speedier studying and better grades in each topic. every one define offers the entire crucial path info in an easy-to-follow, topic-by-topic structure.
This name covers nearly every little thing on the topic of cellular robots - destined to develop into the definitive paintings on robotic mechanisms. It discusses the manipulators, grippers, and mechanical sensors utilized in cellular robotics, and contains by no means ahead of compiled fabric on high-mobility suspension and drivetrains.
Procedure necessities research provides the pro structures engineer the instruments to establish a formal and powerful research of the assets, schedules and components had to effectively adopt and whole any huge, complicated venture. This totally revised textual content deals readers the equipment for rationally breaking down a wide undertaking right into a sequence of stepwise questions, permitting you to figure out a time table, identify what should be procured, the way it could be acquired, and what the most likely charges in funds, manpower, and kit may be to accomplish the undertaking to hand.
It's most unlikely to appreciate the cultures and achievements of the Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, and Arabs, with out figuring out anything in their know-how. Rome, for instance, made advances in lots of parts that have been thus misplaced and never regained for greater than a millenium. this can be a a professional but lucid account of the fantastic triumphs and the constraints of historic and medieval engineering.
Additional info for The Toothpick: Technology and Culture
One of the inventors was once Alphons Krizek, of Philadelphia, who in June 1869 was once issued a patent for an “improvement in toothpicks. ” His reusable device included, as well as the standard roughly directly pointed finish, a pointed hooked finish and a small spoon-shaped projection. The hook enabled “the enamel to be wiped clean from the interior in a way which can't be comprehensive by way of a directly instrument,” and the spoon may be used “to fresh out hole or delicate tooth into which the pointy element& couldn't be inserted with no giving soreness. ” The spoon serve to “cleanse enamel of tartar at issues adjoining to or underneath the gums. ” in addition, in response to Krizek, the equipment will be made in a single piece “of ivory, bone, difficult wooden, or different compatible material,” or it may be “made in sections, jointed to and organized to fold inside an appropriate deal with. ”41 Krizek's patent, which consisted of a number of instruments and didn't infringe upon the Sturtevant patent that Forster managed, was once assigned to 2 different Philadelphians in addition to the inventor. One was once Thomas Richardson, who inside weeks of the issuance of the patent took out a categorized advert in medical American, which learn: on the market at a discount, complete, or by way of nation Rights, Pat. No. 90,855, for a far better Toothpick. an editorial for the Million. Samples offered. The observe “million” was once all that any one attracted to getting wealthy must have had to learn. It used to be a observe that Henry Ford definitely was once to recognize. at the celebration of a dinner celebrating the only millionth version T to come back off the construction line, Ford was once requested to offer a speech. He obliged with, in its entirety, “Gentlemen, one million of something is a smart many. ” actually, the long run marketplace for toothpicks used to be within the a number of hundreds of thousands. It used to be hence the likes of Forster, Krizek, Richardson, and some others who well-known the possibility of finally huge gains in small, trivial issues comparable to toothpicks bought through and for the hundreds of thousands. in line with an off-the-cuff look on the Patent workplace index, via 1873 fewer than a part dozen patents have been issued for toothpicks and machines to lead them to, together with Sturtevant's process for production the easy wood sort and Krizek's mix gadget. forty four yet there have been lots of different patented combos now not listed lower than the letter T. between them used to be John Sturdy's “Combined Case for Pen, Pencil, Knife, Toothpick, &c,” Richard Cross's “Watch-Key, Toothpick, and Toggle Combined,” and Henry Graham and Richard kid's “Improvement in mixed Watch-Key and Toothpick. ” Such contraptions have been universal within the mid-nineteenth century, however the in simple terms examples that experience tended to outlive are these made from fabrics with a few intrinsic price, that's, those who weren't melted down as scrap. ahead of the common availability of wood toothpicks, those mix units have been as renowned as Swiss military knives have been to develop into within the 20th century. As with patented innovations as a rule, the notice “improvement” used to be ordinarily incorporated within the identify of the patent, and the concept that of development used to be popular within the textual content of the specification.