By Ray Laurence
The is still of Roman roads are a strong reminder of the go back and forth and communications method that used to be had to rule an unlimited and various empire. but few humans have puzzled simply how the Romans - either army and civilians - travelled, or tested their geographical figuring out in an period which provided a vastly elevated strength for relocating round, and a bigger collection of destinations.
This quantity offers new views on those concerns, and a few arguable arguments; for example, that trip used to be now not constrained to the elite, and that maps as we all know them didn't exist within the empire. the army significance of shipping and conversation networks is additionally a spotlight, as is the imperial submit method (cursus publicus), and the logistics and value of shipping in either conquest and administration.
With greater than 40 photos, maps and illustrations, this assortment presents a brand new figuring out of the position and significance of shuttle, and of the character of geographical wisdom, within the Roman global,
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36 Casson (1974) 192. 37 velocity Bekker-Nielsen (1989) 148–61. 38 Baehrens (1886) 150–5, Lucilius’ frags. 71–117; André and Baslez (1993) 95–7. See quite often Skeel (1901) 81–109; Chevallier (1972) 228–32. 39 In P. Ryl. IV 638 Botrys seems prior to Biblos, while at the manner out Theophanes travelled at once from Biblos to Tripolis on day 20 (P. Ryl. IV 627 col. vii 325). forty In of the 4 manuscripts – Madrid, Archivo Histórico Nacional 1279 (1007 D ) and St Gallen 732 – the itinerary has been intentionally discarded to maintain this part by myself. forty-one at the nature of the reviews see Douglass (1996) 313–33; with Weingarten (1999) 291–7. forty two that's, inde ascendis Matronam (556, 1), transis pontem, intras Pannoniam inferiorem (561, 5), intras Pannoniam superiorem (562, 8), a Constantinopoli transis Pontum, uenis Calcedoniam, ambulas prouinciam Bithyniam (571, 9–10), ut ascendas Sion (591, 7), et uenis Odronto (609, 5). forty three Doubted for the Bordeaux traveler via Hunt (1982) 57–8. forty four See P. Ryl. IV 623 with Moscadi (1970) 88–154. at the nature of trip see Rees (1968) a hundred and eighty. forty five Cf. the test by means of Douglass (1996) 327 n. sixty one to argue a special interpretation of the dates in an effort to find the pilgrim in Jerusalem for Easter. forty six Barnes (1982) seventy nine. forty seven Berchem (1937) 117–202; (1973) 123–26; and (1974) 301–7; Levi and Levi (1967) 97–102; Chevallier (1972) 27; Reed (1978) 228–54; Janni (1984) 31; Cosme (1998) ninety three. forty eight Dilke (1985) one hundred fifteen. forty nine Thomson (1948) 376; Sherk (1974) 560; receipt of itinerarium as a consultant to go back and forth and placement of victualling issues: Janni (1984) 31; Soldaten erheilten für ihre Marschroute einen Texte mit einer Liste der auf ihrer course jeweils zu erreichenden landmarks: Brodersen (1995) 173. 50 Brodersen (1995) 174: weil der Kaiser nur für die alles vorzubereiten beﬁehlt, die (dem itinerarium) folgen und nicht hyperlinks oder rechts vom vorgeschriebenen Weg abweichen. fifty one Kubitschek (1891) 179, stemma 209. fifty two Provincial headings: