Download E-books Volcanoes!: Mountains of Fire PDF

By Doug Knutson, Eric Arnold

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A volcano can be referred to as a slumbering mountain--that is, until eventually it wakes up! what's it wish to witness the eruption of 1 of nature's majestic time bombs? younger readers can research what makes volcanoes "tick," and browse approximately essentially the most recognized eruptions in history.

Written by way of Eric Arnold, illustrated via Doug Knutson

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This is often known as fieldwork. They list the daily lifetime of a volcano. Volcanologists take a volcano’s temperature with a different electrical thermometer. (They don’t use a tumbler thermometer, simply because glass could holiday from the intense warmth. ) after they are looking to get with regards to the “hot” motion, volcanologists occasionally put on fireproof matches. The temperature contained in the swimsuit remains cool. a few volcanologists learn volcanoes on different planets. Satellites take photos in outer area, and scientists learn them. the most important volcano within the sun process is Olympus Mons on the earth Mars. It’s nearly thrice the peak of Mount Everest! Volcanologists experience inside of Alvin, a submarine, to assemble samples of volcanic rock. yet no longer all volcanologists are human! Dante, a robotic, used to be outfitted to move slowly into the crater of Mount Erebus (AIR-uh-bus) in Antarctica to degree lava and gasoline. Here’s how a volcano works: The earth has a layer of “skin” that's made up of rock. The earth’s pores and skin is termed the crust. The crust is sort of a jigsaw puzzle made of tremendous items referred to as plates. those plates circulation very slowly—a few inches a yr. Why do they movement? simply because they sit down on most sensible of rock that's very, very popular. The rock will get so scorching in spots that it melts. SMACK! whilst the plates bump one another or pull aside, a crack might shape within the crust. Magma and gasoline push up in the course of the crack. as soon as magma is open air of the volcano, it's referred to as lava. occasionally lava explodes in a cloud and shoots out of the crater, because it did within the Mount St. Helens eruption. yet a few volcanoes don’t explode after they erupt. as an alternative, streams of sizzling lava circulation out. The volcanoes of Hawaii erupt this manner. The lava flows are attractive, yet they're like a “river of fireside. ” They burn every little thing of their direction! A volcano will get larger from layers of lava and ash build up on its aspects. while magma or lava cools, kinds of volcanic, or igneous (IG-nee-us), rock are shaped. Granite kinds whilst magma cools slowly in cracks underneath the earth’s floor. Basalt kinds whilst a flow of lava cools fast. Pumice (PUM-is), the lightest rock on the earth, is made while thick, sticky lava cools speedy. Pumice hardens with air bubbles inside—it is so mild, it may possibly go with the flow in water. five the day before today and this present day thousand years in the past in Italy, a boy observed Mount Vesuvius (vuh-SOO-vee-us) erupt. His identify used to be Pliny (PLIN-ee). Ash from Mount Vesuvius buried the entire city of Pompeii (pom-PAY). Mount Vesuvius have been dormant, or snoozing, for a very long time. while it erupted, every thing was once destroyed. the folks who didn’t break out in time have been buried alive. humans desired to comprehend what occurred at Mt. Vesuvius. Pliny wrote letters describing what an erupting volcano gave the impression of. This made him the world’s first volcanologist! He wrote that the earth shook sooner than the blast. (An earthquake is a sign volcano is able to blow! ) Pliny additionally wrote tall cloud shot up within the form of a pine tree. this sort of blast used to be named after him. it's referred to as a Plinian (PLIN-ee-un) eruption. yet Pliny couldn't clarify why a volcano erupts.

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