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Discover the ruins of the Parthenon, probably the most well-known and gorgeous areas within the world!
    
Athens, Greece, is healthier identified for the Parthenon, the ruins of an old temple accomplished in 438 BC to honor the goddess Athena. yet what many of us have no idea is that it simply served as a temple for a pair hundred years. It then turned a church, then a mosque, and through the top of the 1600s served as a storehouse for munitions. while an enemy military fired hundreds and hundreds of cannon balls on the Acropolis, one at once hit the Parthenon. a lot of the sculpture used to be destroyed, 300 humans died, and the location fell into break. at the present time, viewers proceed to flock to this global well-known landmark, which has develop into a logo for old Greece, democracy, and smooth civilization. comprises black-and-white illustrations and a foldout colour map!

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Even the roof tiles at the Parthenon have been marble. (Roof tiles have been frequently made from clay. ) The marble for the Parthenon got here from Mount Pentelikon, ten miles outdoors Athens. There, every one block of stone was once reduce to the dimensions and form wanted for its position at the temple. the traditional Greeks had basically uncomplicated instruments, like hammers and mallets, to pound out the marble. slender grooves have been hammered into the stone. Then wood wedges have been pressured into the grooves. those wedges have been soaked with water in order that the wooden may swell up and break up off a section of marble. every piece used to be minimize approximately into the form wanted for a specific spot at the temple: around items for the columns, blocks for the partitions. in a while, on the Acropolis, the items will be polished and minimize precisely to measurement. not one of the marble may have any cracks—it needed to be excellent. The architects inspected every bit to ensure of that prior to it used to be carted to the Acropolis. The heavy, tough items have been carried to Athens on four-wheeled carts pulled through oxen; as many as thirty or 40 pairs have been wanted for every! Mount Pentelikon used to be in simple terms ten miles away, however it used to be sluggish going to get to the Acropolis. It was once often a six-hour journey. Oxen couldn't make their approach up the hill, so mules pulled the marble up the slopes of the Acropolis. A marble flooring for the temple was once already there simply because years earlier than, the folks of Athens had began development a distinct temple. paintings had stopped whilst the Persians attacked. Having the ground already in position stored time and cash for Pericles. construction begun with the development of the forty-six outdoor columns. they might delay the beams of the slanted roof. each one column was once thirty toes excessive and made of around items of marble referred to as drums that have been stacked one on most sensible of one other. A sq. plug with a pin in the midst of every one drum helped heart it at the one less than. Pulleys lifted up the drums—ten to 12 for every column. Winches and cranes have been extensively utilized to place stone in position. every one drum had numerous bosses—big knobs—around which ropes have been tied to drag the drum into position. as soon as the columns have been status, expert carvers hammered off the bosses and minimize curved grooves all of the manner from most sensible to backside. this can be referred to as fluting. It appears to be like a bit like pleats in a skirt. there has been no cause to do that other than that it seemed attractive. lots of the column tops at the Parthenon are simple, yet a couple of fancier ones have scroll designs. the obvious ones are in a mode known as Doric. The fancier ones are known as Ionic. After the columns went up, paintings started at the rooms contained in the temple. In making stone partitions, the blocks are likely to be held including mortar. (Cement, for example, is one type of mortar. ) however the blocks at the Parthenon healthy jointly completely. the distance among them was once approximately invisible. And no mortar used to be used. None in any respect. All that held the blocks jointly have been steel clamps, that have been hidden from view. They avoided the partitions from relocating. the bigger of the 2 rooms used to be to deal with the statue of Athena. The smaller used to be to shop presents that individuals might convey for the goddess: jewellery, gold, musical tools, furnishings.

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